Presentation on theme: "Renaissance and Revolution"— Presentation transcript:
1 Renaissance and Revolution Ancient Rome to 1700’s
2 Glory of ancient Rome Augustus-first Roman emperor Pax Romana-peace in Rome for over 200 years.Accomplishments: written laws, aqueducts, roads, and bridges.Hundreds of years of warfare followed Pax Romana. Western empire gradually broke apart.
3 Europe in Middle AgesChristian faith-as the empire fell apart, the people of Europe drew strength from Christianity. In such dark times, faith was like a welcoming light.Feudalism-a way to organize society when there is no central government.Lords ruled the local areas. Lords swore loyalty to king.Lord owned land called a manor. Crops, taxes, maintained order and enforced laws, protected the serfs (people who lived and worked on the land)
4 What Was the Renaissance? The Renaissance was a time when creative thinking and new technology helped people to more accurately understand their world. Renaissance thinkers explored new worlds and reexamined old ones. Humanists based their studies on the classical cultures of Greece and Rome.
5 Section 1: The Renaissance in Italy Italy: The Cradle of the RenaissanceThe Renaissance started in Italy and spread throughout Europe. The Roman Catholic Church and merchants who had grown rich from trade financed the creation of works of art.
6 What was the Renaissance? A changing world view1. Reawakened interest in classical Greece and Rome2. New emphasis on human experience and Individual achievementB. A spirit of Adventure1. Looked at universe in new ways2. Experimented with new forms and techniquesC. The Growth of humanism1. Study of classical Greece and Rome to understand their own times2. Emphasis on humanities- Rhetoric, poetry, and history
7 II. Italy: Cradle of Renaissance Italy’s history and geographyRome the seat of Catholic Church, an important patron of the artsLocation encouraged trade with markets in Mediterranean and AfricaCenter of the Roman EmpireB. Italy’s vibrant city-statesEach city- state controlled by a powerful family and dominated by wealthy merchantsFlorence was a symbol of the energy and brilliance of the Italian Renaissance
8 III. Renaissance art and artists flower Reflecting humanist thoughtPortrayed well-known figures of the dayRevived many classical formsB. New artistic techniquesInvented perspectiveDrew From live modelsC. Architecture became a “social art”Meant to blend beauty with utility and improvement of societyAdopted columns, arches and domes favored by Greeks and Romans
11 III. Renaissance Economics Profit-making became more important than Church doctrineTo overcome guilt, profit-makers indulge in philanthropyInfluence of guilds decliningHigh profits led to economic diversification
12 III. Renaissance Economics “Cottage Industry”- An industry where the creation of products and services is home-based, rather than factory-based.Art became the way to advertise economic success (Bling, Bling Baby)Increased commercial competition created the need to be efficient
13 IV. Renaissance Society Art started to focus on the individualHumanism- studied the classical culture of Greece and Rome to understand their own time.Focused on worldly subjects rather than on the Religious IssuesHumanities- subjects such as grammar, rhetoric (the study of using language effectively), poetry, and history.Focus on man’s free will
14 V. Renaissance Politics Niccolo Machiavelli ( )-- “The Prince”The goal of the prince must be powerCynical view of human natureFear is a better motivator than affectionPolitics as the art of deception
15 VI. Renaissance Art and Architecture The depiction of nudesImitation of nature was a primary goalPagan scenes and myths were popular subjects with no apologies to the Church
16 VI. Renaissance Art and Architecture (cont) Boticelli’s “Birth of Venus”Status of artist is elevated to cultural heroRenaissance art stressed proportion, balance and harmony—and was not otherworldlyArtistic problems of perspective and composition addressed
17 VI. Renaissance Art and Architecture These problems were solved by emphasizing the mathematical side of painting--Brunelleschi’s “linear perspective”Linear perspective is a mathematical system for creating the illusion of space and distance on a flat surface. The system originated in Florence, Italy in the early 1400s. The artist and architect Brunelleschi demonstrated its principles, but another architect and writer, Leon Battista Alberti was first to write down rules of linear perspective for artists to followInnovations in Renaissance paintingVI. Renaissance Art and Architecture
18 - “chiaroscuro” is defined as a bold contrast between light and dark.
19 Sfumato is the Italian term for a painting technique which overlays translucent layers of colour to create perceptions of depth, volume and form. In particular, it refers to the blending of colours or tones so subtly that there is no perceptible transition.
44 VI. Renaissance Art and Architecture (cont) Mannerism’s greatest representative: El Greco ( )Romanesque architecture was revived in Renaissance building projectsBrunelleschi’s Church of San Lorenzo
45 VII. Renaissance Education and Philosophy Humanistic ageVarious types of humanismGreat fervor displayed in finding and collecting old documentsLeads to critical examination of documents--Lorenzo VallaEducation produces moral uplift
46 VII. Renaissance Education and Philosophy (cont) A true liberal educationHumanist education for womenLove for the study of history most of allA Greek language fad after 1454Petrarch ( ): the Father of Italian Renaissance humanismFocus on the individual and his dignity
47 VII. Renaissance Education and Philosophy (cont) First influenced secondary educationExtreme vanity of Renaissance scholarsThe importance of law and rhetoric in Renaissance educationClassical political ideals were cultivatedKnowledge needed to be useful
48 VIII. The Renaissance Papacy Loss of influence over European nation-statesDecline in moral prestige and leadershipPope Julius II ( )Popes as patrons of Renaissance art--Leo X ( )
49 IX. Spread of Humanism to the Rest of Europe The significance of Gutenberg’s printing pressExplosion of printed materials--By 1500, 40,000 titles printed and between 8-10 million copiesThe impact of movable-type printing presses: research and literacy
50 IX. Spread of Humanism to the Rest of Europe (cont) Popular publications in the early days of the printing pressThomas More--Utopia--Executed by Henry VIII in 1535Erasmus—Dutch Christian Humanist
51 IX. Spread of Humanism to the Rest of Europe (cont) William Shakespeare ( )--Globe TheaterShakespeare returns to classical subjects and genresHis history plays were the most popular at the timeMacbeth: ambitionHamlet: individualismKeen sensitivity to sounds and meanings of words