Common Core and Writing Participants will understand the expectations of the Common Core State Standards for Writing.
The report: describes a range of instructional practices that have demonstrated a positive effect on reading outcomes. provides guidance on how teachers can use writing instruction to strengthen students’ reading performance. Writing to Read In the Writing to Read report, Graham and Hebert examine whether various approaches to writing instruction impact students’ reading skills and comprehension. Graham, S., & Hebert, M.A. (2010).
Recommendation #1 Have students write about text they read. Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading Research to build and present knowledge Writing Standards 7, 8 and 9
Writing personal reactions Analyzing the Text Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading Having students respond to a text... improves reading comprehension.
Having students write summaries of a text... has a positive impact on reading comprehension. Writing summaries: using only one sentence using a set of rules or steps using an outline by locating and using the main idea in each paragraph using graphic organizers Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading
“Taking notes about text proved to be better than just reading, reading and rereading, reading and studying, reading and underlining important information, and receiving explicit instruction in reading practice.” Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading Having students write notes about a text... enhances comprehension.
Having students answer questions about a text in writing or create and answer written questions about a text... shows greater benefit than answering questions about a text verbally. Answering questions about a text in writing; Writing questions about text read; Learning how to locate main idea in a text, generating and answering their own questions about text. Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading
Recommendation #2 Teach students the writing skills and processes that go into creating text. Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading Production and Distribution of Writing Writing Standards 4, 5, and 6
Teaching students the process of writing, text structures for writing, paragraph or sentence construction skills improves reading comprehension. Two effective strategies were: the process approach to writing explicit instruction/mini-lessons that focused on spelling, sentence combining, and multi- paragraph composition were beneficial. Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading
Teaching students sentence construction... Activities in the study focused on the formation of complex sentences from smaller units of writing. This type of writing instruction improved reading fluency for students in grades 1-7. Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading improves fluency.
Activities in the study focused on the spelling patterns of letters and sounds in words. Teaching students spelling... improves word reading skills. Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading
Recommendation #3 Increase how much students write. Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading Range of Writing Writing Standard 10
Effective instructional practices in this category included both independent and collaborative writing opportunities. Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading Increasing how much students write... improves reading comprehension.
Review of the Writing Standards 1-3 ① Argument ② Informational/Explanatory ③ Narrative Three Text Types
Review of the Writing Standards 4 - 10 ④ Developing and organizing according to task, purpose, and audience ⑤ Revising, editing, rewriting to strengthen writing ⑥ Using technology to produce, publish, and collaborate
⑦ Completing short and long research projects ⑧ Gathering, assessing, and integrating information from multiple sources ⑨ Drawing evidence from texts to support analysis ⑩ Writing routinely for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences
Examining the Progression of the Writing Standards Find the document titled: “Common Core State Standards for Writing” Look at the first writing standard Using a pen/pencil/highlighter move from grade to grade underlining what is different from the previous grade
What did you observe? Consider: K-2 3-5 6-8 9-12 At what grade do students move from opinion pieces to argument? What is the biggest difference when comparing 8 th to 9-10 th ? When are students expected to provide a conclusion?
Writing Standards Haiku Work with members at your table Use the Writing Anchor Standard found on the index card in the center of your table Create a haiku that expresses the gist of that standard Haiku: 5-7-5 syllables
Develop writing Plan, revise, edit, rewrite Try a new approach. Anchor Standard 5 Example of Haiku
Writing Standards 1-3 ① Argument ② Informational/Explanatory ③ Narrative Three Text Types
Text Types In the K-2 classroom, create a classroom environment where students: know they are authors express their opinions share what they know about a topic recount an event (Writing Standards 1-3)
What does Appendix A tell us about the text types? In the descriptions look for: o Purpose o Definition o How http://www.corestandards.org/assets/Appendix_A.pdfhttp://www.corestandards.org/assets/Appendix_A.pdf p. 23-25
Skilled writers many times use a blend of these three text types to accomplish their purpose... (from Appendix A) Combining the Text Types
The Emphasis on Argument While all three text types are important, the Standards put particular emphasis on students’ ability to write sound argument on substantive topics and issues, as this ability is critical to college and career readiness. p.24 Appendix A It’s important to teach all types
According to Appendix A of the CCSS: persuasive writing might “appeal to the audience’s self- interest, sense of identity, or emotions,” whereas a logical argument convinces the audience because of the perceived merit and reasonableness of the claims and proofs offered rather than either the emotions the writing evokes in the audience or the character or credentials of the writer” (p. 24). Persuasion or Argument?
From: 5 Things Every Teacher Should be Doing to Meet the Common Core State Standards, Eye on Education http://www.eyeoneducation.com/bookstore/client/client pages/pdfs/5ThingsCCSS Davis.pdf
Fosters understanding – “Our lives intersect through shared stories” – I can relate to that... Inspires – generates ideas for writing and thinking. Create thinking logs for future research. Connects – Discover meaning in their own experiences and connect to curriculum content. Narrative Perks
It's about balance! _ - - And it is about building skills And it is about scaffolding understanding And it is about integration of text types TIC Tir PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF NORTH CAROLINA State Board of Education I Department of Public Instruction
Anchor Standard 4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. Supporting this standard: Read Like a Writer Using Mentor Texts
When you read like a writer you notice: Word choice Sentence structure Organization What questions would you ask as a writer?
Underline and highlight the passage in the text itself and ask yourself: What is the technique the author is using here? Is this technique effective? What would be the advantages and disadvantages if I tried this same technique in my own writing? When you read like a writer: Annotate and Read Closely Read with a pen or highlighter in hand Make comments in the margins Write yourself notes and summaries Look for patterns
Using Mentor Texts “The simple rhythm of copying someone else’s words gets us into the rhythm of writing, then you begin to feel your own words.” -William Forrester, Finding Forrester
“Nobody is born with a style or a voice. We don’t come out of the womb knowing who we are. In the beginning, we learn by pretending to be our heroes. We learn by copying. We’re talking about practice here, not plagiarism – plagiarism is trying to pass someone else’s work off as your own. Copying is about reverse- engineering. It’s like a mechanic taking apart a car to see how it works.” -Steal Like an Artist by Austin Kleon Steal Like an Artist
A mentor text is any piece of writing that can be used to teach a writer about some aspect of writer’s craft. The best mentor texts are those that can be used numerous times throughout the school year to demonstrate many different characteristics of a text. (ideas, structure, written craft) What are Mentor Texts?
Steps to Using Mentor Texts Select a text to emulate and reread – one that inspires a new idea, structure, or craft worth trying. Read it (Read like a reader) Analyze it (Read like a writer) Emulate it (Write like the writer) - adapted from Kelly Gallagher
Let’s Practice! Choose one of the following ways to prompt your writing. Borrow any line or word from the text that inspires you to write. Look at the last sentence, write 4 more sentences. Choose a section of the text that inspires you to write using that technique (i.e. author’s writing style, use of language, or sentence structure)
Creating Successful Writers with Mentor Texts http://www.reading.org/downloads/53rd conv handouts/mentor texts cappelli dorfman. pdf Mentor Text for the Traits of Writing http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/mentor-texts-traits-writing Teacher 2 Teacher – What are mentor texts? http://www.teacher2teacherhelp.com/writing-strategies/what-are-mentor-texts/ How to Use Mentor Text to Teach Writing http://www.ehow.com/how 8216119 use- mentor-texts-teach-writing.htmlhttp://www.ehow.com/how 8216119 use- mentor-texts-teach-writing.html Mentor Text Resources
Anchor Standard 5 Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. Supporting the standard with: Grammar instruction Integrating Language standards
Process Writing In the K-2 classroom, adults guide and support young authors as they learn to strengthen their writing by: responding to questions and suggestions from peers add details focus on a topic (Writing Standard 5)
Grammar Research and Evidence Teaching in the context of writing Focus on sentence combining Model and Practice Using a Mentor Text Online Tools Integration of the Standards - Writing and Language
v' Writing Standard 5: Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach v' Language Standards 1-3: Producing, expanding, and rearranging complete, simple, and compound sentences is an expectation as early as grade 2, Language Standard 1f. v' “ Isolated grammar instruction appears to have little or no positive impact in helping poor writers become better writers” (Graham & Perin, 2007). Why teach grammar in context?
Teaching Sentence Combining... http://tinyurl.com/bck4bts Improves fluency and comprehension (Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading, A Carnegie Corporation Time to Act Report, 2010) Is a promising method of teaching grammar in context (Graham & Perin, 2007; Strong, 1986)
Teaching sentence combining... 1. Analyze the use of punctuation and sentence types in a mentor text. 2. Practice combining sentences with guidance (guided practice) 3. Analyze sentences in their own writing. 4. Practice combining sentences in their own writing with guidance and support from peers and adults (try a new approach). http://www.youtube.com/watc h?v=RPoBE-E8VOc
Step 1: Using Mentor Text to Teach Grammar in Context Reread Joe Willhoft’s essay: This I Believe Take note of the following – highlight or circle: 1.The use of punctuation to combine sentences and phrases 1.Use of different types of sentences (simple, compound, complex)
Important Next Steps! Step 3 : Analyze your own writing Teach sentence combining using the process approach to writing. Return to your first memory of writing piece for this activity. – Note and annotate how you used punctuation for effect and to combine sentences in your response. – Note and annotate the different types of sentences you wrote
Step 4: Try it in your own writing Revise and try a new approach by using a strategy for combining sentences.
Integration of Writing/Language Standards for Sentence Combining Beginning in grade 3, Writing Standard 5: (Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach) is integrated with and references Language Standards 1, 2, and 3. Language Standard 1 – produce and expand sentences L.K.1f L.1.1g-j L.2.1f L.3.1h-I L.4.1a-f L.5.1a-b L.7.1b-c L.9-10.1a-b Language Standard 3 – choose words and phrases and vary sentences L.3.3a L.4.3a-b L.5.3a L.6.3a L.7.3 L.11-12.3.a Language Standard 2 – use of punctuation in combining sentences L.4.2c L.5.2b-c L.6.2a L.7.2a L.8.2a-b L.9-10.2a-b L.11-12.2a
Look at Grade Specific Standards Read Standard 5 for your grade and consider the two strategies just discussed. Sentence Combining Using mentor texts to teach grammar in context Record ideas and/or insights.
Anchor Standard 6 Use technology, including the internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others. Supporting the standard with: Resources
Using Digital Tools In the K-2 classroom, with guidance and support from adults, students use digital tools to: 'produce writing 'publish writing 'collaborate with peers (Writing Standard 6)
Meet and Exchange Introduce yourself to 3 people you don’t work with and are not at your table. Share your online resource and how it can be used to support instructional delivery of Writing Standard 6.
Anchors 7,8, and 9 W.CCR.7: Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. W.CCR.8: Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism. W.CCR.9: Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
Shared Research Projects In the K-2 classroom, students participate in shared research and writing projects. These shared research projects include author studies, “how to” books, studying a topic, and recording science observations. (Writing Standards 7 and 8)
Supporting these standards Research projects Note taking Evidence TIC Tir PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF NORTH CAROLINA State Board of Education I Department of Public Instruction
Sample Research Strategies Saturation Reports Personalized Research Paper Multi-genre Research
Research Across the Disciplines At your table, discuss research projects both short and sustained for grades K-12 in math, science, social studies, art, physical education and CTE classes. Now, share several of these projects at http://linoit.com/users/kewandamerritt/canvases/Research%20 Project%20Ideas http://linoit.com/users/kewandamerritt/canvases/Research%20 Project%20Ideas These sample projects will be compiled and sent to you electronically to share with the faculty at your school.
Teaching students to gather credible information to support their research Resource: Energize Research Reading and Writing by C. Lehman Taking Notes:
Teach Students to Rely on Understanding, Not Tricks to Hold onto Large Concepts Focus first on comprehension/main idea. To do this...have students practice visualizing information, then use visual images to uncover main idea.
Slow and Steady Wins the Race: Teach Students to Paraphrase Well by Pausing to Think Students pause to reflect on their reading before jotting down notes. To do this... have students read a section, cover it up and jot down notes about their learning. Go back and reread the same section, looking for details or domain-specific vocabulary they need.
You Say Tomato, I Say Heirloom Jubilee Tomato Cultivar: Teach Students to Notice Variation and Gradation in Domain-Specific Vocabulary Teach students to pay attention to the variety of terms used to describe similar ideas or concepts as they read across texts. To do this...pay attention to how ideas and concepts are described across sources. keep a word list Then, simply look the word up, or reread texts that the terms came from
Resources for Note Taking Readwritethink Fact Fragment Frenzy http://www.readwritethink.org/files/resources/interactives/factfrenzy/opening.html Readwritethink Notetaker http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom- resources/student-interactives/readwritethink-notetaker-30055.htmlhttp://www.readwritethink.org/classroom- resources/student-interactives/readwritethink-notetaker-30055.html Readwritethink Outline Tool http://interactives.mped.org/view interactive.aspx?id=722&title Incredible Shrinking Notes http://www.educationworld.com/a_lesson/03/lp322- 02.shtmlhttp://www.educationworld.com/a_lesson/03/lp322- 02.shtml Take Note: Five Lessons for Note Taking Funhttp://www.educationworld.com/a_lesson/lesson/lesson322.shtml Funhttp://www.educationworld.com/a_lesson/lesson/lesson322.shtml
“Give your evidence,” said the King; “and don’t be nervous, or I’ll have you executed on the spot.” Alice in Wonderland, Chapter 11.
Evidence Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. -Refer to grade specific reading and writing Standards - Students should address increasingly demanding content and sources as they advance through the grades retaining skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades.
Anchor Standard 10 Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences. Supporting this standard: Writing to Learn Creating meaningful tasks
Writing to Learn – Using writing as a tool for learning not only as a product of understanding! For exploration (quick research, project notebook) For thinking (graphic organizers, synthesis papers, summary writing) For wondering (annotations, journals)
Research on Summary Writing Writing Next Recommendation #2: Summarization, which involves explicitly and systematically teaching students how to summarize texts. Writing to Read Recommendation #1: The teacher asks the students to write summaries and answer questions in writing to increase their ability to explain information, elaborate knowledge leading to deeper understanding...
How to Write a Summary 1.Identify or select the main information; 2.Delete trivial information; 3.Delete redundant information; and 4.Write a short synopsis of the main and supporting information for each paragraph. Rinehart, Stahl, and Erickson (1996)
Let’s Practice! Read the introduction to Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading Write a summary using the steps outlined in the research.
Creating Meaningful Writing Tasks CRAFT is an effective tool for creating writing tasks. CRAFT is a strategy teachers can use across disciplines to address task purpose and audience. Context Role Audience Format Topic The Writing Task:
Sample CRAFT The Great Gatsby “Does History Repeat Itself?” Recent concern over the “fiscal cliff” has caused many people to question their quality of living. Imagine you are an editor for the New York Times in New York City and you have researched the Great Depression and our current state of the economy. Write an editorial for the public describing how history repeats itself.
Creating Meaningful Writing Tasks Online Writing Instruction System OWI on NC Education includes writing templates aligned to the CCSS Standards for Writing. https://center.ncsu.edu/nc/
Creating Meaningful Writing Tasks Writing task templates were created by the Literacy Design Collaborative. They include task templates, examples, and rubrics. You can find them at: K-2 Writing TasksK-2 Writing Tasks 3-5 Writing Tasks3-5 Writing Tasks 6-12 Writing Tasks6-12 Writing Tasks
Appendices: Appendix B : Text samples primarily serve to exemplify the level of complexity and quality with which the standards require all students in a given grade band to engage. Additionally, they are suggestive of the breadth of texts that students should encounter in the text types required by the standards. Appendix C : Writing samples have been annotated to illustrate the criteria required to meet the Common Core State Standards for particular types of writing—argument, informative/explanatory text, and narrative—in a given grade. Each of the samples exhibits at least the level of quality required to meet the writing standards for that grade.
Appendix B: Text exemplars and sample performance task COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS for ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS & LITERACY IN HISTORY/SOCIAL STUDIES, SCIENCE, AND TECHNICAL SU: READY White, E. B. Charlotte's Web. Illustrated by Garth Williams. New York: HarperCollins, 2001. (1952) From Chapter 1: "Before Breakfast" "Where's Papa going with that ax?" said Fern to her mother as they were setting the table for breakfast. "Out to the hoghouse," replied Mrs. Arable. "Some pigs were born last night." "I don't see why he needs an ax," continued Fern, who was only eight. "Well," said her mother, "one of the pigs is a runt. It's very small and weak, and it will never amount to anything. So your father has decided to do away with it." "Do away with it?" shrieked Fern. "You mean kill it? Just because it's smaller than the others?" Mrs. Arable put a pitcher of cream on the table. "Don't yell, Fern!" she said. "Your father is right. The pig would prob-ably die anyway." Fern pushed a chair out of the way and ran outdoors. The grass was wet and the earth smelled of springtime. Fern's sneakers were sopping by the time she caught up with her father. "Please don't kill it!" she sobbed. "It's unfair." Mr. Arable stopped walking. "Fern," he said gently, "you will have to learn to control yourself:' "Control myself?" yelled Fern. "This is a matter of life and death, and you talk about controlling myself." Tears ran down her cheeks and she took hold of the ax and tried to pull it out of her father's hand. "Fern," said Mr. Arable, "I know more about raising a litter of pigs than you do. A weakling makes trouble. Now run along!" "But it's unfair," cried Fern. "The pig couldn't help being born small, could it? If I had been very small at birth, would you have killed me?" TIC Tir PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF NORTH CAROLINA State Board of Education I Department of Public Instruction
Appendix C: Annotated student writing samples for grades K-12. 1--- TIC mmcv...1 COR E STATE STANDARDS far ENGLISH LANG LUNGE ARTS 8R LITERACY IN H I..3 - 1 - fDRWSIDDIA.1_ STUDIES. S EINCE. AND TEC:1-11, 110"1_ SU g. Student Sample: K,.Argurnent (cDpinicin) This opinion piece about a work of literature was produced in class. ThP A -ED t\f e.r2. wit(.A.nnc.tatIc.n The writer of this piece tells the reader the name of the book (In the title of the paper). o My t (favorite).194ak iS do _vooce I...1.43.nt to be my states an opinion ar preference about the book. o... my raft (favorite) ;oat (part) is the has (horse] \ 0- \ O - 7 \ NT - r- - -& 11) 1 12 - ( L — I nn>,
Evaluation On an index card.... 1.What information/resources/ strategies did you find most helpful? 2. How will you use this information to inform your work? 3. What do you suppose will be most challenging when sharing with non- ELA teachers?
Contact Information: Julie Blackmon South Robeson High School, English II /English Department Chair (910) 422-3987 firstname.lastname@example.org Michael Shane Fletcher, MAEd, NBCT Union Chapel Elementary School, 6th Grade (910) 521-4456 email@example.com Kewanda Merritt, MSA Public Schools of Robeson County, ELA Curriculum Supervisor Program Services Building, Office B10 (910) 735-2350 firstname.lastname@example.org