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TUTORIAL INSTRUCTIONS: Carefully go through the tutorial, step by step. You may return to any section, as necessary. Once you are satisfied that you understand the concepts and procedures, click CLOSE to get out of the tutorial mode. You will then be taken to the post-quiz. PLEASE LISTEN CAREFULLY CLICK TO CONTINUE

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if n mol gas contain N particles, CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (MEASURING GASSES) then 2n mol gas contain 2N particles, and n/2 mol gas contain N/2 particles

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P = F/A CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (MEASURING GASSES)

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T of gas CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (MEASURING GASSES) average kinetic energy of particles average velocity of gas particles

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V gas V container CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (MEASURING GASSES)

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IDEAL GAS LAW PV = nRT CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (RELATING GAS PROPERTIES)

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R = 0.082053 L atm mol -1 K -1 = 62360.3 mL torr mol -1 K -1 = 8.3144 pa m 3 mol -1 K -1 CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (RELATING GAS PROPERTIES)

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R = PV nT CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (RELATING GAS PROPERTIES)

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P 1/V (Boyle’s Law ) CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (RELATING PRESSURE, VOLUME)

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n 1/T (in Kelvin) CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (RELATING AMOUNT, TEMPERATURE)

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n P CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (RELATING AMOUNT, PRESSURE)

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For a gas sample composed of CO(g) at 2 atm, Ar(g) at 3 atm and O 2 (g) at 1 atm: P total = P CO (g) +P Ar(g) + P O2(g) = 2 atm + 3 atm + 1 atm = 6 atm CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (PRESSURE OF GASEOUS MIXTURE)

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P mixture of gases = P gas 1 +P gas 2 + P gas 3 + … Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures: CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (PRESSURE OF GASEOUS MIXTURE)

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V T (in Kelvin) (Charles’ Law ) CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (RELATING VOLUME, TEMPERATURE)

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n V (Avogadro’s Law ) CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (RELATING AMOUNT, VOLUME)

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P T (in Kelvin) (Gay-Lussac’s Law) CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (RELATING PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE)

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P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 T 1 T 2 COMBINED GAS LAW: CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (RELATING PRESSURE, VOLUME, TEMPERATURE)

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Example 1: A student prepares chlorine gas in the chemistry lab where the temperature is 20 o C, and collects it in a gas jar over water. On that day the atmospheric pressure is 0.997 atm. At 20 o C water has a vapor pressure of 17.5 torrs. What was the actual press- ure of the chlorine collected? CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (GAS LAW CALCULATION)

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Given properties: LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (ANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEM) temperature = 20 0 C atmospheric pressure = 0.997 atm water vapor pressure at 20 0 = 17.5 torrs

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Property to be found: (ANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEM) pressure of chlorine gas

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CLICK TO CONTINUE P tot = P 1 + P 2 + P 3 +… LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (FORMATING THE SOLUTION) P tot = P atm = P chlorine + P water vapor 0.997 atm = P chlorine + 17.5 torr P chlorine = 0.997 atm - 17.5 torr

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CLICK TO CONTINUE P tot = P 1 + P 2 + P 3 +… LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (FORMATING THE SOLUTION) P tot = P atm = P chlorine + P water vapor P chlorine = P atm - P water vapor = 0.997 atm - 17.5 torr

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CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (UNIT CONVERSION, EVALUATION) 0.997 atm x 760 torrs 1 atm P chlorine = 758 torrs – 17.5 torrs = 758 torrs = 740 torrs

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Example 2: A sample of neon which occupies 40 mL at 800 torrs and 30 o C is transferred to another container in which it attains S.T.P. conditions. What is the volume of this new container? CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (GAS LAW CALCULATION)

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V 1 = 40 mL V 2 = x CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (ANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEM) P 1 = 800 torrs P 2 = 760 torrs (standard pressure) T 1 = 30 o C T 2 = 25 o C (standard temperature)

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P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 T 1 T 2 CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (ANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEM)

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V 1 : mL V 2 : mL P 1 : torrs; P 2 : torrs T 1 = (30 + 273) K = 303 K T 2 = (25 + 273) K = 298 K LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (ANALYSIS, UNIT CONVERSION)

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800 torrs x 40 mL = 760 torrs x V 2 300 K298 K V 2 = 800 torrs x 40 mL x 298 K 300 K x 760 torrs P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 T 1 T 2 CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (FORMATING THE SOLUTION)

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V 2 = P 1 V 1 T 2 T 1 P 2 P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 T 1 T 2 CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (FORMATING THE SOLUTION) = 800 torrs x 40 mL x 298 K 300 K x 760 torrs

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V 2 = 41.8 mL CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (EVALUATION)

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Example 3: A pure sample of CO 2 was collected and stored in a 2.5-liter flask on a day when the atmospheric pressure was one atmosphere. The next day when the temperature in the storage area was 27 o C the gas was at a pressure of 776 mm Hg. At what temperature was the gas originally collected? CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (GAS LAW CALCULATION)

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V 1 = 2.5 L V 2 = 2.5 L CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (ANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEM) P 1 = 1.0 atm P 2 = 776 mm Hg T 1 = x T 2 = 27 o C

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P 1 = P 2 T 1 T 2 CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (ANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEM)

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P 1 = 1.0 atm = 760 mm Hg T 2 = 27 o C = (27 + 273) K = 300 K CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (UNIT CONVERSION)

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EITHER 760 mm Hg = 776 mm Hg T 1 300 K T 1 = 760 mm Hg x 300 K 776 mm Hg OR T 1 = P 1 T 2 P 2 T 1 = 760 mm Hg x 300 K 776 mm Hg CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (FORMATING THE SOLUTION)

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T 1 = 294 K T 1 = (294 – 273) o C = 21 o C CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (EVALUATION)

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Example 4: A pure sample of CO 2 was collected at 299 K and stored in a 2.5-liter flask on a day when the atmospheric pressure was 1.04 atmosphere. How much carbon dioxide was collected? CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (GAS LAW CALCULATION)

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T = 299 K CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (ANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEM) P = 1.04 atms n = x Gas Law: PV = nRT (Ideal gas law) V = 2.5 L

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R = 0.082053 L atm mol -1 K -1 CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (ANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEM)

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EITHER 1.04 atm x 2.5 L = n x 0.082053 atm L x 299 K mol K n = 1.04 atm x 2.5 L 0.082053 atm L mol -1 K -1 x 299 K OR n = PV RT n = 1.04 atm x 2.5 L 0.082053 atm L mol -1 K -1 x 299 K CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (FORMATING THE SOLUTION)

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n = 0.106 mol CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (EVALUATION)

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CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (FORMATING, EVALUATION) mass CO 2 = n x molar mass = 0.106 mol x 44.010 g/mol = 4.67 g

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CLICK TO CONTINUE volume CO 2 = n x molar volume at S.T.P. = 0.106 mol CO 2 x 22.414 L/mol = 2.34 L CO 2 at S.T.P. LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (FORMATING, EVALUATION)

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END OF TUTORIAL SUMMARY OF GAS LAWS Gas LawEquation Avagadro’sn/V 1 = n/V 2 Boyle’sP 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 Charles’V 1 /T 1 = V 2 /T 2 CombinedP 1 V 1 /T 1 = P 2 V 2 /T 2 Dalton’sP tot = P 1 + P 2 + P 3 +… Gay-Lussac’sP 1 /T 1 = P 2 /T 2 IdealPV = nRT CLICK TO CONTINUE

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