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Abnormality & Disorders Abnormality: infrequent in population, violates norms, disability, distress.

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Presentation on theme: "Abnormality & Disorders Abnormality: infrequent in population, violates norms, disability, distress."— Presentation transcript:

1 Abnormality & Disorders Abnormality: infrequent in population, violates norms, disability, distress

2 Abnormality & Disorders Psychological Disorder: pattern of behavior that: Causes significant distress Causes harm to self or others Interferes with ability to function

3 Models of Abnormality Stress-Vulnerability Model: genetic predisposition to disorder; symptoms brought out during stress Biological: neurotransmitter function Evolutionary: exaggerated form of adaptive behavior Cognitive: faulty thinking

4 Models of Abnormality Learning/Behavioral: inappropriate conditioning or modeling Humanistic: blocked personal growth; poor self-concept Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic: unconscious conflict (id, ego, superego) Sociocultural: cultural beliefs or values

5 Emotion Memory Thinking Conditioning Neurotransmitters Nervous system Behavior?? Control vs. Influence

6 22% of people at any given time Most can be treated successfully Long-term prognosis: may see alternate periods of normal functioning with periods of disorder – or – management with proper treatment Recovery? Living with a disorder

7 Stress Psychosomatic disorders: interruption to proper functioning because of overloaded nervous system Prolonged stress creates physical problems Stomach pain, asthma, eczema, hives, migraine headaches, rheumatoid arthritis, high blood pressure, colitis, heart disease, sore muscles (neck, back), indigestion, constipation, chronic diarrhea, fatigue, insomnia, sexual dysfunction Prolonged stress triggers and/or worsens psychological symptoms Related to increased symptoms for mood, anxiety, somatoform, eating, and schizophrenia disorders Extreme stress or trauma can trigger initial symptoms, especially PTSD, dissociative disorders, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia

8 Somatoform Disorders Belief of physical illness without actual physical ailment Hypochondiasis: constant worry about illness Somatization Disorder: show of worry about specific symptoms for medical attention Conversion Disorder: unexplained CNS disruption, e.g., paralysis Biological Factors: None Environmental Factors: anxiety, reinforcement during illness, cognitive magnification of bodily changes

9 Schizophrenia Thought disorder: Interruption to normal thinking / reasoning processes, usually with unexplainable auditory or visual experiences The brain tries to fill in the gaps to make sense but the result does not reflect reality Positive Symptoms (+): incoherence, loose associations, paranoia, clang associations, hallucinations (esp. auditory), delusions of: grandeur, persecution, reference Negative Symptoms (-): loss of normal thought or behavior, catatonia, social withdrawal, inappropriate emotions/affect

10 Schizophrenia Biological Factors (DP 14:03-15, 18:18-19:50) genetic predisposition (gene combination), disordered brain structures, NT imbalance (too much DA thinking areas, too little DA & glutamate emotion areas) Environmental Factors low support, stress, double-bind parenting, nutrition, drug use (during critical stages of development) Treatment Anti-psychotics for positive symptoms, stress management, social support, family therapy, social training (video)


12 Prognosis Schizophrenia Maintenance drugs or symptoms for life Psychotherapy to reduce episodes, severity, manage relationships, life skills

13 Dissociative Disorders Dissociative Amnesia can't recall information related to a traumatic or highly stressful event (selective to incident) Dissociative Fugue State sudden, unexpected travel from home, can't recall their past or personal identity

14 Dissociative Disorders Dissociative Identity Disorder 2 or more distinct personality states where different states recurrently take control of the host The host’s memory of events experienced as other personalities is dependent on relationship with alters

15 Dissociative Disorders Biological Factors Not sure; can easily dissociate Environmental Factors High anxiety or traumatic experience Prognosis Amnesia and Fugue often spontaneously recover Dissociative Identity Disorder rarely recover (integration usually unsuccessful) but can manage symptoms, relationships

16 Other Disorders Impulse control: lacking inhibition of urges Seasonal: related to sunlight, environ. Comorbidity: presence of more than one disorder

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