5 Poverty never takes a holiday" (One Poor African) Poverty is going empty with no hope for the future. Poverty is getting nobody to feel your painand poverty is when your dreams go in vain because nobody is there to help you.Poverty is watching your mothers; fathers, brothers and sisters die in pain and in sorrow just because they couldn't get something to eat.Poverty is hearing your grandmothers and grandfathers cry out to death to come take them because they are tired of this world.Poverty is watching your own children and grandchildren die in your arms but there is nothing you can do.Poverty is watching your children and grandchildren share tears in their deepest sleep.Poverty is suffering from HIV/AIDS and dying a shameful death but nobody seems to care.Poverty is when you hide your face and wish nobody could see you just because you feel less than a human being.Poverty is when you dream of bread and fish you never see in the day light.Poverty never takes a holiday"(One Poor African)YVONNE TO READ POEM WHILE SLIDE TWO, THREE AND FOUR ARE PROJECTED IN THE BACKGROUND.
6 DEFINING POVERTY“…a condition characterized by severe deprivation of basic human needs, including food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education and information.”Defining Poverty – So, what exactly is poverty? In simple terms:
7 Income vs. ConsumptionIncome refers to the amount of money someone makes, while consumption refers to the monetary value of the goods that person actually consumes.Poverty is set at an income of $2 a day or less, and extreme poverty is set at $1 a day or less.'Empowerment' refers to the ability of an individual to make choices regarding his or her life. Often, the poor are not empowered - they are forced to work at certain jobs or do certain things, and often, this state of existence can be linked to poverty.Absolute poverty measures set a ‘POVERTY LINE’ at a certain income amount or consumption amount per year, based on the estimated value of a ‘basket of goods’ (food, shelter, water, etc.) necessary for proper living.Poverty should be defined by an individual's inability to affect change in their lives..." - Kathleen McHugh, 'Save the Children'
8 CAUSES OF POVERTY IN AFRICA - BRIEF OVERVIEW Mismanagement of landMisused moneyCorruptionHuman resourcesEducationDiseasesLack of infrastructureAfrican nations typically fall toward the bottom of any list measuring small size economic activity, such as income per capita or GDP per capita, despite a wealth of natural resources.Today, the average European earns twenty times what the average African does. Mismanagement of landMany nations lack a system of freehold landowning. In others, the laws prevent people from disadvantaged groups from owning land at all. Although often these laws are ignored, and land sales to disadvantaged groups occur, legal title to the land is not assured. As such, rural Africans rarely have clear title to their own land, and have to survive as farm laborers. Unused land is plentiful, but is often private property.Misused moneyOver $500 billion (U.S.) has been sent to African nations in the form of direct aid. The consensus is that the money has had little long term effect. Many newly democratic nations in Africa are saddled with debt run up by totalitarian regimes. Large debts usually result in little being spent on social services, such as education, pensions, or medical careAlthough GDP per capita incomes in Africa have also been steadily growing, measures are still far better in other parts of the world.In addition, most of the debt currently owed (approximately $321 billion (U.S.). Most African nations are pushing for debt relief, as they are effectively unable to maintain payments on debt without extending the debt payments indefinitely.What large sums of money that are in Africa are often used to develop mega-projects when the need is for smaller scale projects. For example, Ghana was the richest country in Africa when it obtained independence. However, a few years later, it had no foreign reserves of any consequence. The money was spent on large projects that turned out to be a waste of resources. Corruption is also a major problem in the region, although it is certainly not universal or limited to Africa.Human resourcesWidespread availability of cheap labor has often perpetuated policies that encourage inefficient agricultural and industrial practices, leaving Africa further impoverished. In Tanzania gravel is produced with manual labor (by pounding rocks with tools), where in almost everywhere else in the world machines do the same work far more cheaply and efficiently.Tanzania as an example of a nation with superb natural resources that nevertheless was among the poorest nations in the world.Education is also a major problem, even in the wealthier nations. Illiteracy rates are high .As such, the continent, for the most part, lacks scientists, engineers and even teachers. DiseasesThe greatest mortality in Africa arises from preventable water-borne diseases, which affect infants and young children greater than any other group. The principal cause of these diseases is the regional water crisis, or lack of safe drinking water primarily stemming from mixing sewage and drinking water supplies. 3,000 Africans die each day of AIDS and an additional 11,000 are infected. Less than one percent are actually treated. Lack of infrastructureClean potable water is rare in most of Africa (even those parts outside the sub-Saharan region) despite the fact that the continent is crossed by several major rivers and contains some of the largest freshwater lakes in the world. Few major cities have adequate sewage treatment systems.ConflictDespite other hot spots for war, Africa consistently remains among the top places for ongoing conflicts, consisting of both long standing civil wars (e.g. Somalia) and conflicts between countries (e.g. Ethiopia and Eritrea's border wars after the latter's independence from the former). As a result, Africa is full of refugees, who are often deliberately displaced by military forces during a conflict, rather than just having fled from war torn areas.Conflict
9 Effects of povertyAfrica's economic malaise engenders disease, warfare, misgovernment, and corruption that created it in the first place. The most direct consequence of low GDP is Africa's low standard of living and quality of life. Except for wealthy elite and the more prosperous peoples of South Africa and the Maghreb, Africans have very few consumer goods.Quality of life does not correlate exactly with a nation's wealth. Angola for instance, reaps large sums annually from its diamond mines, but after years of civil war, conditions there remain poor. Radios, televisions, and automobiles are rare luxuries.Most Africans are on the far side of the digital divide and are cut off from communications technology and the Internet however use of mobile phones has been growing dramatically in recent years. Quality of life and human development are also low.Infant mortality is high, while life expectancy, literacy, and education are all low. Catastrophes cause deadly periods of great shortages. The most damaging are the famines that have regularly hit the continent, especially the Horn of Africa. These have been caused by disruptions due to warfare, years of drought, and plagues of locusts. Africa follows Asia as the second poorest continent with the second largest poor population.
10 Possible Solutions1. African poverty reduction depends upon raising African growth.2. The domain of the public sector should be kept small and decentralized.3. Strong checks and balances should be put in place on how governments use power and decentralized public spending.4. Reform of banking secrecy to make the embezzlement of resource taxes more difficult.5. Temporary preferential market access for Africa.6. International trade policies for poverty reduction to take precedence rather than additional aid.7. International peacekeeping and security guarantees to help resolve regional conflicts.8. Large and sustained aid inflows, not so much for investment in economic development, but rather for the direct raising of consumption levels.Globally, the number of people in absolute poverty has been in decline for around 25 years, yet in Africa it is still increasing. Africa has not been growing and its income level is too low for redistribution to resolve poverty. Hence, Africa’s problem is to break out of an economic stagnation that has persisted for three decades.
11 WE INVITE THE AUDIENCE TO MAKE CONTRIBUTIONS TOWARDS THE CONCLUSION OF THIS MALAISE THAT HAS PLAGUED AFRICA FOR CENTURIES......