Presentation on theme: "A+ Certification Guide"— Presentation transcript:
1 A+ Certification Guide Chapter 1Technician Essentials and PC Anatomy
2 Chapter 1 Objectives The Essential Parts of Any Computer: The vital components of a PC—an overviewHardware, Software, and Firmware:Explain how hardware, software, and firmware interact, and define the major types of software and utility programs.Points of Failure:Learn about possible issues that could cause the computer to fail—for example, overheating, hard drive failure, or loose adapter cards.The CompTIA Six-Step Troubleshooting ProcessPC Tools:Demonstrate how to assemble/disassemble the computer safely.Resources to prepare for the exam:Websites and exam resources.
3 Essential Parts of a Computer Storage devicesMotherboardsPower suppliesProcessors/CPUsMemoryDisplay devicesInput, multimedia, and biometric devicesAdapter cardsPorts and cablesCooling systemsThe next 2-4 slides can work nicely together if you want to do a little rework on these and especially if you have a desktop PC and a laptop PC available as live examples. Simply point out the same things that are on these slides, and then using Slide 6 as a guide, point out the points of failure that the student might encounter.
7 Example: A Laptop PC Side View Figure 1-401fig04Illustration: Please add callouts as indicated and initial-cap Proprietary.
8 Example: A Laptop PC side view Figure 1-501fig05Illustration: Please add callouts as indicated remove hyphen and space for DVD multioptical drive.
9 Points of Failure Overheating: Loose peripheral card: Failure of the fans in the power supply or those attached to the processor, northbridge chip, or video card can cause overheating.Loose peripheral card:A loose add-on card might not be detected by plug-and-play or might have intermittent failures after installation.Inability to start the computer:Loose processor/memory module can prevent the computer from starting.Drive failures:Improperly connected power or data cables, or improperly configured jumper blocks, will not work properly.Front panel failures:Cables connecting the case switch, reset switch, and status lights.Battery failureBIOS chip failure
10 Hardware, Software, and Firmware Components that can generally be touched or seen.Often a source of failure:Loose connectionsPhysical damageElectrical damage (electrostatic, voltage spikes/surges)Incompatibility of devices with other devicesSoftware:Drivers used to control the hardwareApplications used to generate user dataProtocols to transmit data over the networkInternal/external commands to control the systemAnalogy: Internal Versus External CommandsPoint out that like a computer, your body also has a need for both internal and external commands. For example, you do not consciously tell your heart to beat 70 times per minute. That would consume resources of the brain needed for more conscious activities. Although eating may appear to be an involuntary function for some of us, you do tell yourself when to eat, which is, of course, a necessary function for the heart to continue pumping. In fact, the act of eating speeds up the heart to send resources to the stomach muscles. Likewise, the computer's internal commands cause some things to just happen, such as CPU clock cycles. However, opening a program file might redirect the way those clock cycles access RAM, hard drives, and other motherboard resources.
11 The CompTIA Six-Step Troubleshooting Process DescriptionStep 1Identify the problem.Step 2Establish a theory of probable cause. (Question the obvious.)Step 3Test the theory to determine the cause.Step 4Establish a plan of action to resolve the problem and implement the solution.Step 5Verify full system functionality and, if applicable, implement preventative measures.Step 6Document findings, actions, and outcomes.
12 Tools: Working Inside the PC Opening the Case:Different manufacturers have different case access mechanisms.Protect your system against electrostatic discharge (ESD).Common Tasks:Connecting internal and external data cables.Recheck periodically; can work loose over time.Installing a PCI card (for example, video or sound card).Replacing the power supply.Replacing the hard drive.Replacing the CD-ROM/DVD-ROM.Upgrading memory.Installing a USB support.
13 Basic Tools for Assembly/Disassembly of Computers Illustration: This is a pick up of Figure 1-1 from "CompTIA A and Cert Guide“ 2e (ISBN: ).Figure 1-701fig07
14 Refer to the pictures in the book or demonstrate the safe installation of a peripheral card using an ESD strap. This will be seen again later, but a short demo can be an effective attention-getter.Figure 1-8Illustration: This is a pick up of Figure 2-6 from "CompTIA A and Cert Guide“ 2e (ISBN: ).
15 System and Testing Tools Multimeter:AC/DC voltageOhmsAmperagePower Supply Tester:Can save a motherboard from being ruined by a bad power supplyLoopback plugs:Serial, network, and USB port testing
17 What Have You Learned? Name four common hardware failures. How does the CPU receive data?What device has the IRQ with the highest priority?Why is it important to use ESD precaution?What is a resource conflict?How is software different from firmware?
18 Exercise Activity 2.2: The motherboard and CPU. Consider using Topic and Activity 2.3 in the Instructor Guide to get students thinking about troubleshooting inputs and outputs.
19 Chapter 1 Summary Essential Parts of a Computer: Motherboards, CPUs, video cards, and how to identify them.Hardware, Software, and FirmwarePoints of Failure:Issues that could cause the computer to fail—for example, overheating, hard drive failure, or loose adapter cards.Six-Step CompTIA Troubleshooting ProcessWorking Inside Your PC:How to assemble/disassemble the computer safely.Next Lesson: Chapter 2