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Honors Chem Ch 10 Pg 329 Matter Kinetic Theory – particles of matter are in motion Elastic Collisions – particles bounce off with no net loss of energy (energy could transfer)

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Gas Pg 330 1.Expand 2.Are fluid (flow) 3.Have low density 4.Can be compressed 5.Diffuse – spread from high to low concentration 6.Effuse – pass through holes in balloons, etc lighter gas = faster effusion Pg 388 #5 (sterile rooms kept at high P so air effuses out not in) 7. Can condense back into liquid by removing energy called Heat of Vaporization H v and slowing down particles (condensation) 8. Can deposit back into solid if Heat of Fusion H f is removed (frost on windshield)

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Liquids Pg 334 1.Higher density than gas 2.Incompressible 3.Diffuses (ink in water Pg 334) 4.Pulled together by surface tension (drops) 5.Pulled to sides of container by capillary action (meniscus and stems of plants) 6.Can evaporate from surface without boiling (volatile if evap quickly like alcohol and fuels Pg 343) 7. Boils throughout (not just surface evap) with added energy called Heat of Vaporization H v Pg 344-45 8. Can turn to solid at freezing point by removing Heat of Fusion H f Pg 346

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Solids Pg 338 1.made of definite crystals (except amorphous ones like glass, plastic, semiconductors in electronics Pg 341) 2.Definite shape and volume 3.Definite melting point (intensive property) when Heat of Fusion H f added 4.Most have higher density than liquids (ice and cork do not so they float) 5.Incompressible 6.Low diffusion 7.Can go through sublimation and turn straight to gas if Heat of Vaporization H v added (dry ice)

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Phase Diagrams – graph that shows temperatures and pressures for different states of matter Pg 347 **note that high press means high BP (pressure cooker is HOT) Triple point – temp and pressure that could maintain all 3 states of matter at same time Critical point – max temp and pressure for liquid to exist Good review picture Pg 348 and handout

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Pressure Chapter 11 Pg 361 Pressure = Force / Area Smaller area = more force One nail punctures, bed of nails okay Skinny lady in spiked heels punctures, fat guy in flat shoes okay Force is measured in Newtons Area is measured in cm 2

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Pressure is measured in 1 atmosphere = 760 mm of Hg or Torrs Pg 363 = 101.3 kiloPascals = 14.7 pounds per square inch Pg 365 Practice 1,2 Pg 364 STP = 0 o C or 273 K, 1 atm

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Gas Laws Pg 370 1.Boyles’s Law - PV = PV graph Pg 370!! If P increases (indep var/x axis), then V decreases (depend var/y axis) inverse proportion!!! Pg 370 Practice #1 2. Charles’ Law - V/T = V/T graph Pg 372!! If T increases (indep var/x axis), then V increases (depend var/ y axis) direct proportion!!! Pg 372 Practice #1,2K = C + 273

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3.Gay-Lussac’s Law – P/T = P/T graph Pg 373!! If T increases (indep var/x axis), then P increases (depend var/y axis) direct proportion!!! Pg 374 Practice 1-3 4. Combined Gas Law – PV/T = PV/T Pg 375 Practice 1,2

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5. Ideal Gas Law – PV = nRT pressure (volume) = # moles (.0821) (temp) atm (L) (K) use.0821 for R with atm, L, and K see Pg 384 for other values of R 1 mole of any ideal gas = 22.4 Liters of vol !!! Pg 381 Practice #1,2 Pg 382 Practice #1-3 Pg 385 Practice #1,2

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Solid, Liquids, and Gases

Solid, Liquids, and Gases

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