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**Chapter 13: Electrons in Atoms**

Models of the Atom Electron Arrangement in Atoms

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**Chapter 13: Electrons in Atoms -- Models of the Atom --**

The Evolution of Atomic Models Dalton Model Thomson Model Rutherford Model Bohr Model Quantum Mechanical Model

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**Chapter 13: Electrons in Atoms -- Models of the Atom --**

Dalton’s Model Solid indivisible mass No concept of subatomic particles

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**Chapter 13: Electrons in Atoms -- Models of the Atom --**

Thomson’s Model The “plum-pudding” model Electrons stuck in positively charged material Nothing about protons, neutrons, arrangements, or ion formation

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**Chapter 13: Electrons in Atoms -- Models of the Atom --**

Rutherford’s Model The first nuclear atom Most of the mass is concentrated in the nucleus of the atom

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**Chapter 13: Electrons in Atoms -- Models of the Atom --**

Bohr’s model Said electrons orbited nucleus in fixed definite paths Each energy level has electrons that can “jump” (quantum jump) to other energy levels based on specific amounts of energy (quanta)

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**Chapter 13: Electrons in Atoms -- Models of the Atom --**

The Quantum Mechanical Model Mathematical solutions from Erwin Schrodinger’s model developed this Estimation of probability of where electrons are found in the “fuzzy cloud”

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**Chapter 13: Electrons in Atoms -- Models of the Atom --**

The Quantum Mechanical Model Designates energy levels of electrons by using principal quantum numbers (n) n = 1, 2, 3, 4, … Average distance of the electron from the nucleus increases with increasing values of n Sublevels of arrangement (arrangements in space) Sublevel contains atomic orbitals (regions where electrons are most likely to be found) Denoted by the letters s, p, d, and f Each orbital contains two electrons

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**Chapter 13: Electrons in Atoms -- Models of the Atom --**

The Quantum Mechanical Model Summary of Principal Energy Levels, Sublevels, and Atomic Orbitals Principal Energy Level Number of sublevels Type of sublevel n = 1 1 1s (1 orbital) n = 2 2 2s (1 orbital), 2p (3 orbitals) n = 3 3 3s (1 orbital), 3p (3 orbitals), 3d (5 orbitals) n = 4 4 4s (1 orbital), 4p (3 orbitals), 4d (5 orbitals), 4f (7 orbitals)

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**Chapter 13: Electrons in Atoms -- Models of the Atom --**

Atomic Orbitals s orbital In the p orbitals, the areas close to the nucleus that have very little probability of finding an electron are called nodes

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**Chapter 13: Electrons in Atoms -- Models of the Atom --**

Atomic Orbitals In the d orbitals, the areas close to the nucleus that have very little probability of finding an electron are called nodes

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**Chapter 13: Electrons in Atoms -- Models of the Atom --**

Atomic Orbitals **The maximum number of electrons that can occupy a principle energy level is given by the formula 2n2 Increasing Energy (increasing distance from nucleus) Energy Level (n) 1 2 3 4 Maximum # of electrons allowed 8 18 32

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Electrons in Atoms. Models of the Atom – A History John Dalton John Dalton atom was solid, indivisible mass atom was solid, indivisible mass J.J. Thomson.

Electrons in Atoms. Models of the Atom – A History John Dalton John Dalton atom was solid, indivisible mass atom was solid, indivisible mass J.J. Thomson.

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