2 -ED as a Verbal EndingThe ending –ed of the past tense and the past participle of verbs is pronounced:
3 -ED as a Verbal Ending /Id/ after d and t: add - added lift - lifted end -ended rest - resteddefend - defended wait - waitedpretend - pretended
4 -ED as a Verbal Ending /t/ after voiceless sounds other than t: /p/ - dropped, shaped, sipped, wrapped/k/ - dropped, locked, marked, wrecked/f/ - coughed, laughed, photographed, puffed/θ/ - bathed, toothed/s/ - danced, placed, kissed, missed/∫/ - brushed, flashed, rushed, wished/t∫/ - pinched, reached, touched, watched
5 -ED as a Verbal Ending /d/ after voiced sounds other than d: /i: / - keyed, guaranteed/I/ - pitied, envied, worried, carried/ɑ:/ - barred, scarred/ɜ:/ - preferred, referred,/ə/ answered, bothered, gathered/eI/- stayed, delayed, played, weighed
6 -ED as a Verbal Ending /d/ after voiced sounds other than d: /b/ - disturbed, robbed, grabbed/g/ - begged, dragged/m/ - aimed, seemed/ð/ - clothed, bathed, mouthed/z/ - dazed, pleased, caused/l/ - called, killed, rolled, boiled, mailed
7 -ED as an Adjectival Ending the past participles of some verbs are used as adjectives. Then, a second syllable is added even if the base form does not end in a /t/ or /d/ sound, and the "-ed" ending will be pronounced as /id/.
8 -ED as an Adjectival Ending The following -ed words used as adjectives are pronounced with /Id/:aged blessed crooked dogged learned nakedragged wicked wretched
9 -ED as an Adjectival Ending So we say:the aged man /Id/a blessed nuisance /Id/a dogged persistence /Id/a learned professor - the professor, who was truly learned /Id/a wretched beggar - the beggar was wretched /Id/
10 -ED as an Adjectival Ending But when used as real verbs (past simple and past participle), the normal rules apply and we say:he aged quickly /d/he blessed me /t/they dogged him /d/he has learned well /d/ or /t/
11 -ED as an Adjectival Ending The exceptions doesn't apply to teaching pronunciation of English past tense verbs, just past participles when they are used as adjectives.