# Image Processing IB Paper 8 – Part A Ognjen Arandjelović Ognjen Arandjelović

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Image Processing IB Paper 8 – Part A Ognjen Arandjelović Ognjen Arandjelović http://mi.eng.cam.ac.uk/~oa214/

Lecture Roadmap Face geometry  Lecture 1: Geometric image transformations   Lecture 2: Colour and brightness enhancement   Lecture 3: Denoising and image filtering   Lecture 4: Cross-section through out-of-syllabus techniques

Filter Design – Matched Filters Consider the convolution sum of a discrete signal with a particular filter: When is the filter response maximal? …234233228240241 … 122100122100 228+ 480+482+ 241 + …

Filter Design – Matched Filters The summation is the same as for vector dot product: The response is thus maximal when the two vectors are parallel i.e. when the filter matches the local patch it overlaps. …234233228240241 … 122100

Filter Design – Intensity Discontinuities Using the observation that maximal filter response is exhibited when the filter matches the overlapping signal, we can start designing more complex filters: Kernel with maximal response to intensity edges 0.50.0-0.5

Filter Design – Intensity Discontinuities Better yet, perform Gaussian smoothing to suppress noise first: Noise suppressing kernel with high response to intensity edges Gaussian kernel

Unsharp Masking Enhancement The main principle of unsharp masking is to extract high frequency information and add it onto the original image to enhance edges: image HPF + output Original edge Enhanced

Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) Filter The Laplacian of Gaussian is an isotropic kernel that responds maximally to changes in the 2 nd derivative: 1D Laplacian of Gaussian2D LoG as a surface2D LoG as an image 2D Laplacian of Gaussian:

Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) Filter The response of the 1D Laplacian of Gaussian filter to an edge: - Signal (edge)LoG filterFilter output

Unsharp Masking Enhancement Unsharp mask filtering performs noise reduction and edge enhancement in one go, by combining a Gaussian LPF with a Laplacian of Gaussian kernel: Gaussian smoothingConvolution with –ve Laplacian of Gaussian += Result

Unsharp Masking – Example Consider the following synthetic example: Gaussian smoothed then corrupted with Gaussian noise

Unsharp Masking – Example After unsharp masking: Gaussian smoothed then corrupted with Gaussian noise

– Distance Transform –

Motivation – Toy Problem The problem: produce output image with higher pixel value indicating higher level of belief that a roughly square polygon of edge 225 is centered at it: 225

Matched Filtering May Be? Given the material covered in the previous lecture, you may be tempted to create a matched filter: 225

Matched Filtering May Be? Here is the output of convolving the filter with the example image: A rather ugly looking result with too sharp discontinuities (i.e. low robustness to small deformations in shape, angle or thickness)

Distance Transform Rather, compute the distance transformed image – each pixel value indicates the minimal distance of that pixel to the nearest edge in the original image: Original image Distance transformed

The result is far better looking! Result after Distance Transform Consider now the result of convolving our matched filter with the distance transformed image:

– Nonlinear Denoising –

Salt and Pepper Noise Consider an image synthetically corrupted with salt and pepper noise: “Salt” (bright) “Pepper” (dark)

Salt and Pepper Noise Here is the result of denoising attempt using a Gaussian low-pass filter:

Median Filter Median filter replaces the old pixel value by the median of its neighbourhood: 0 91 92 93 93 97 108 ± 3 pixel neighbourhood (sorted) MedianOriginal value

Median Filter – 1D Example The result of applying the median filter (with neighbourhood of size 7) on the corrupted 1D signal:

Median Filter – 2D Example The result of applying the median filter (mask size 3 х 3) on the synthetically corrupted image: No edge smoothing Noise virtually entirely removed

Filter Comparison The advantages of the median filter are easily seen when considering the difference to the ground truth: Gaussian denoising Median filtering RMS difference: 15 (from 20)RMS difference: 5 (from 20)

– De-Convolution –

An Example Problem Consider an image of a car plate acquired by a speed control camera: The plate is entirely unreadable due to motion blur Is it possible to somehow enhance this image to the level that the plate number can be read off?

Image Formation Model Assuming constant car velocity* the motion blur is caused by simple spatial averaging in the direction of apparent velocity. As before, this is equivalent to convolving the original, sharp image with a simple pulse function. * A reasonable assumption, given that the exposure is relatively short.

Recovery Algorithm Given an estimate of the car velocity and our image formation model suggests the following algorithm: 2D Fourier Transform 2D Fourier Transform / De-blurred result Degradation model

The Result Using the pulse width of 15 pixels produces the following de-blurred result: RE03 TGZ

– Super-Resolution –

What is Image Super-Resolution Given one or more low-resolution (LR) images, produce an enhanced, high-resolution (HR) image.  Observation model: Observed LR image “True” image Noise Transformation (geometric, photometric…)

SR via Non-Uniform Interpolation One of the simplest forms of super-resolution takes on the form of interpolation from non-aligned samples: Not quite the same

Example – 2x Sampling Frequency Non-uniform interpolation Simple scaling

– That is All for Today –

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