Presentation on theme: "CE 00875-3 Character AI Diane Bishton - K229 these slides at Non-verbal Communication 2 (with."— Presentation transcript:
CE 00875-3 Character AI Diane Bishton - K229 (email@example.com) these slides at http://www.blackboard.staffs.ac.uk Non-verbal Communication 2 (with pictures from Morris, D. “Manwatching”, (1977) M & Lambert, D. “Body Language” (1999) B )
Introduction In today’s lecture, we will look at Proxemics - the study of physical & personal territory, and paralanguage - the study of how things are said - tone, manner, humour, sarcasm etc. (largely taught) & other ‘natural’ sounds e.g. snoring, sighing. Recall that a single gesture alone - like a single word - is typically meaningless. To be interpreted, gestures need to be considered as a ‘cluster’.
Extent of Personal Space General Spatial Norms ( typical English-speaking ): 5. Public zone 3.5m + 4. Acquaintance (social) zone 1 - 3.5m 3. Conversational (personal) zone 0.5 - 1.5m 2. Intimate (embracing) zone 15cm - 50cm 1. Close intimate (whispering) zone0cm - 15cm (see also Benyon et al p678)
Ignoring others Adjusting to crowded conditions : Stand or sit still Expressionless face Take more interest in ceiling or floor Block others with a newspaper Message: “You’re too close - I feel uncomfortable, I don’t want to communicate with you” Some other cultural differences have been outlined in your handout.
Inattention, Rejection, Disagreement Scanning away, Head turning(2), Uneven smile(3), ‘Closed’ posture B B
Tie-signs From Body Proximity to ‘Movement Synchrony’ or ‘Postural Echo’. This happens between people and can make us feel ‘part of the tribe’. In Atkinson’s work (1989) on “Conversation Analysis” (in Politics), he has shown that applause, for example, tends to be started by an individual and then is rapidly picked up by the rest of the audience, quickly building into a crescendo which lasts between 7-9 seconds. Postural echo is usually only possible between people of equal status - matching alertness or relaxation, frequently synchronising their movements. (Also used by dominant people to put subordinates at ease). ‘Microsynchrony’ of the rhythm of movements (not the exact posture) is often performed within 1 / 48th of a second !
Postural Echo & Mimicking Example mimics: Holding drink in both hands Heads on hands, on elbows Crossed Legs / Holding legs B M M
Joining in It is very uncomfortable for people if they mistake or misunderstand the points at which ‘responses’ in conversation should be made - for example if they clap too early during a performance - because it shows ignorance of how to behave properly. Performers such as politicians generally provide enough clues and ‘leading’ elements to prepare an audience to respond e.g. in rhythmic speaking ‘triads’ (lists of three) of phrases or repetitions : “spend and spend, and borrow and borrow, and tax and tax” (Tebbitt, 1983). (this acts in the same way as ‘Ready’ ‘Steady’ ‘Go’) Music is also often present, sometimes as a subliminal signal. (When the music stops, take your seat) - making it possible for individuals to join in and make exactly the same actions at the same time.
Costume In the 15th century, it was illegal for a knight under the rank of Lord to wear a short tunic or shoes with points longer than 2 inches
Messages in the Voice Tone, tempo & rhythm of our voices infer personality traits e.g. An increased rate of speaking : the individual is more animated and extroverted. A flatness in the tone of voice : more withdrawn, maybe bored, more masculine characteristic. A nasal sound : suggestion of difficulties with socialising
What is Paralanguage ? It’s about changing & manipulating characteristics of Vocal (sounds) as against Verbal (words) e.g. laughing, crying, whispering, snoring, yelling, moaning, groaning, yawning, sneezing, sighing, belching etc. It changes voice e.g. through Intensity (amplitude, loudness, energy) Pitch (frequency) Extent (rhythm, tempo) It predominantly uses ‘primitives’ e.g. "um" "uh-huh" etc. silent pauses etc.
Finally Nonverbal communication is gaining an importance in the study of human behavior and interactions. Its uses in assessing how individuals perceive others are recognized and validated. We use nonverbal cues to validate emotions & clearly as a basis for decision-making. The nearer an AI character can get to expressing itself verbally, vocally (paralinguistics) & visually (gesture, costume etc.) the more believeable it will be
Furnham, A. (1999) Body Language at Work lib ref 302.222 Lewis, D. (1990) The Secret Language of Success Lambert, D. (1999) Body Language Kendall & Kendall, (2005) Systems Analysis & Design 6e (for Organisational Culture & Organisational Metaphors) School Company (2005) Nonverbal Communication & Positive Body Language (DVD – Nelson Library) Insight Media (2005) Nonverbal Communication & Culture (DVD – Nelson Library) The Center for Nonverbal Studies provided an excellent site covering a range of non-verbal behaviours via : http://members.aol.com/nonverbal2/nvcom.htm For views of non-verbal communication in another culture : http://www.shinnova.com/part/99-japa/abj17-e.htm http://virtualtimes.com/writers/ueda/thenon.htm Further references (should be available locally)
Further References (possibly harder to get at) Eisenberg, A.M., & Smith, Jr., R.R. (1971). Nonverbal communication. Ekman, P. (1980). Three classes of nonverbal behavior. In Von Raffler-Engel, W. (Ed.), Aspects of Nonverbal Communication (pp.89-102). Major, B. (1981). Gender patterns in touching behavior. In C. Mayo & N. Henley (Eds.), Gender and Nonverbal Behavior. Merahbian, A. (1971). Silent messages. Messaris, P. (1997). Visual persuasion: The roles of images in advertising. Rozelle, R. M. Druckman, D. & Baxter, J.C., (1997). Non-verbal behavior as communication. In O. D. W. Hargie (Ed.), The Handbook Of Communication Skills (pp. 67-102). St. Clair, R.N. (1980). Social distance: expressions of power, solidarity and status. In Von Raffler-Engel, W. (Ed.), Aspects of Nonverbal Communication (pp.81-88).