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“The War to End All Wars”

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1 “The War to End All Wars”
“The War to End All Wars”

2 World War I Unit – Essential Questions:
1. How are civil liberties challenged during times of conflict? 2. How has U.S. foreign policy resisted outside influence? 3. How did the changes in U.S. foreign policy since the turn of the century lead to the entrance of the U.S. into a world conflict? 4. How did the outcome of World War I shape the world politically, economically, and socially?

3 World War I Unit Objectives:
Objective - Global and military competition, increased demands for resources and markets, closing the frontier, and exploitation of nations, people, and resources. Objective - Causes of conduct of the Spanish-American War, United States interventions in Hawaii, Latin America, Caribbean, Asia/Pacific. Objective - Intervention verses Isolation, support for and opposition to U.S. economic intervention, and perception of the U.S. as a world power. Objective - Causes of WWI in Europe, use of and effects of propaganda, U.S. anti-war sentiment, and reasons for U.S. entry into the Great War. Objective - The importance of U.S. involvement in WWI, modernization of warfare, the changing nature of U.S. foreign policy, key factors in the Allies’ success, and the failure of the U.S. to ratify the Treaty of Versailles.

4 Main Causes of World War I
Militarism - The building up of armed forces and military. Making preparations for war. Alliances - Agreements or promises made with other countries in order to defend and help each other in case of an attack. Imperialism - The policy of a country to extend their authority over other countries using economic, political, and military means. Nationalism - Having pride in your own country or ethnic origin, and willing to defend it to the death.

5 What event triggered the beginning of WWI?
The Balkan countries, including Bosnia, wanted to form their own separate country, but Bosnia was still controlled by Austria-Hungary. A radical group called, “the Black Hand” wanted Bosnia-Herzegovina to leave the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austria-Hungary throne was scheduled to make a visit to Sarajevo. Bosnia.


7 The “Black Hand” Group made plans to assassinate Ferdinand.
Each man was given a revolver, two bombs, and a small vial of cyanide. The three men were instructed to commit suicide after the assassination. Ferdinand and his wife Sophie were escorted through the city in a car that had its top rolled down in order to allow the crowd to see them.

8 Alliances are Formed Triple Entente (Allies) - Britain, France, and Russia Georges Clemenceau France Lloyd George Britain Czar Nicholas II Russia Triple Alliance (Central Powers) – Germany Austria-Hungary Italy Franz Joseph Austria-Hungary Vittorio Orlando Italy Kaiser Wilhelm II Germany


10 Declarations of War Russia - Came to the defense of Serbia.
July 28, Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia. August 1, Germany – declares war on Russia and France. Germany moves its troops ( Schlieffen Plan) Eastern Front – attacks Russia Western Front – Attacks France August 4, Britain declares war on Germany. 1915 – Italy switches sides to the Allies. - They were promised a part of the Austria-Hungary Empire after the war from the Allied Countries. The United States remains Neutral ( favored Allies).

11 New Weapons and Warfare
Poisonous Gas – introduced by Germans – caused vomiting, blindness, and itching to death ( mustard gas ). Flame Throwers Submarines - introduced by Germans ( U-Boats ). Machine Guns and Machine-gunned Planes - Guns would shoot between propellers ( dogfights) famous “Red Baron” Tanks Hand Granades Zeppelins - used for Reconnaissance and bombing. Mines Barbed Wire

12 The U.S. Enters World War I! 5 Reasons why the U.S. entered WWI?
The United States and WWI Up until 1917, the U.S. remained neutral in the war. Woodrow Wilson was the President of the U.S. during WWI. Wilson was re-elected and would serve until 1920. The U.S. Enters World War I! 5 Reasons why the U.S. entered WWI? 1. Neutrality Rights Violations - President Wilson warned Germany to respect our neutrality rights on the open seas, but they continued to attack and sink our ships. Sussex Pledge (1916)- After a German U-Boat sank a French passenger ship, the Sussex, in the English Channel injuring several Americans, Wilson threatened to break Neutrality. Germany pledged not to attack merchant vessels without warning, but they would not honor this pledge.

13 2. Sinking of the Lusitania - A British passenger ship was sunk by a German U-Boat killing 1,200 people, including 128 Americans.

14 3. The Bolshevik Revolution of Czar Nicholas II of Russia is overthrown by the Bolshevik (Communist) Party led by Vladimir Lenin. Lenin will soon make peace with Germany and pull out of the war.

15 4. Allies Plea - for help from the U. S
4. Allies Plea - for help from the U.S., because Britain and France need assistance. 5. Zimmerman Telegram - A secret telegram sent by the German foreign minister Arthur Zimmerman to Mexico in 1917 urging Mexico to attack the U.S. if they got involved in WWI. The telegram was intercepted by the British and given to President Woodrow Wilson.

16 The United States Enters the War
The Yanks are coming… The United States Enters the War Neutrality collided with three realities: Ethnic ties with Europe U.S. economic links with the Allies Pro-allied sympathies Wilson’s desire to play a role in postwar Europe settlements. 1. Theodore pushed Wilson to go to war. He supported the National Security League – pushed to build up our Arms and military and prepare for war. 2. Carrie Chapman Catt, Jane Addams, and other feminists formed the Woman’s Peace Party supporting isolationism. 3. Wilson’s Sect. of State, William Jennings Bryan resigned in 1915 because he opposed Wilson’s changing views toward interventionism.

17 The United States declares war on Germany on April 6, 1917!
President Wilson issues a Conscription (draft) for all men ages He later changes it to John “Black Jack” Pershing is chosen as commander of the American infantry nicknamed the “doughboys.” In June, 1917, about 200,000 doughboys are sent to France, but they were not ready for combat.

18 How World War I Comes to an End!
Russia signs the Brest-Litovsk Peace Treaty with Germany pulling out of the war. Russia gave up large territories of land to Germany - Finland, Poland, Ukraine, and the Baltic States. Austria-Hungary surrendered to the Allies in November of Germany loses the Western Front The help of the eager-for-action U.S. doughboys against the low-morale German troops forced them to surrender to end the war on 11/11/11 – Armistice Day.

19 Wilson’s 14 Points Was very lenient on conquered countries.
A plan drawn up by W.Wilson that included 14 specific strategies for ending the war and making peace. Was very lenient on conquered countries. Wanted to establish a League of Nations to oversee and enforce the terms of surrender. 1. It would be an international organization with the purpose of preserving peace throughout the world. 2. Every nation would have an equal vote. 3. Every nation in the world would be a member, and each nation would have an equal vote. 4. Any controversy within the League would be turned over to the Central Council: France, Britain, Italy, Japan, the U.S., and five small nations.

20 Treaty of Versailles Wilson would negotiate the treaty in Paris without much input from the new majority Republican Congress. France and Britain would not approve most of Wilson’s 14 Points. They felt that they were too lenient. The League of Nations was approved to enforce the terms of the surrender. It was signed in Paris, France on June 28, 1919 officially ending WWI. The U.S. Congress did not approve of the treaty or the League of Nations, so they refused to sign it. Why? Because they felt that it did not benefit the U.S. 1. A group of thirty-nine Republican senators led by Henry Cabot Lodge opposed the League of Nations, citing several flaws in its structure. - Reservationists (Lodge) - willing to pass the treaty if changes are made. - Irreconcilables - no treaty, no way! 2. The Senators believed that the U.S. should remain “isolationist” after the war.

21 Results of the Treaty of Versailles
3. In March of 1920, the Senate defeated the vote for approval of the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations. Reasons Why? - Upset with Wilson for not including them in making the treaty. - Fear of involvement on war without Congressional declaration of war. - Fear of foreign control of military decision-making. - Questioned using “War to prevent War.” - The refusal of Wilson to compromise on Article X (ten) - it made members promise to protect each other’s territorial integrity against aggressors. Congressmen did not want to be pulled into foreign conflicts. Results of the Treaty of Versailles A. Kaiser Wilhelm II (German leader) was forced to give up his throne and he fled to Holland for the next 23 years. B. Germany had to pay back $30 Billion in war reparations. C. Germany had to break up all Alliances with other countries. D. Germany had to admit to a “Guilt Clause.” E. Created a League of Nations. F. Italy gained very little, refused to sign a treaty. G. Germany establishes a Republican form of government.

22 War Deaths by Country

23 The End!

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