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Leadership H.L. Trait theories Trait theorists believe that different managers and leaders have to be who they are instead of trying to change.

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Presentation on theme: "Leadership H.L. Trait theories Trait theorists believe that different managers and leaders have to be who they are instead of trying to change."— Presentation transcript:

1 Leadership H.L. Trait theories Trait theorists believe that different managers and leaders have to be who they are instead of trying to change.

2 Examples of leadership traits 252 Listening skills Enthusiastic Ambitious Decisive Enterprising Recognition and approval from followers Seeing the bigger picture High standards of integrity Influential and inspiring others to same vision Prudence in decision making

3 Some argue that leaders are born experts They say it is impossible for people to change their personality They believe that people act like who they admire.

4 Other theorist believe that people can learn to be great leaders. They believe that leaders can learn through experience and practice. They still think that leaders need a combination of toughness and fairness

5 Rensis Likert’s four types of management style Exploitative autocratic - no trust in subordinates all decisions come from top down. Benevolent autocratic – some trust in employees use rewards instead of threats. (compared to a parent) Participative- managers make decisions but put a lot of trust in employees Democratic – Leaders have complete confidence in workers and work as a team towards decisions.

6 Fiedler Believes that no best way of leading. Depends on situation and personality Thinks that anyone can be a leader The ways to establish the best approach depend on Relationships between people Situation Authority of the leader

7 Blake and Mouton Five leadership styles that can be shown on a grid page 254


9 Impoverished management style Managers do not care about people or tasks. Usually managers who do not want to be blamed for mistakes.

10 Country Club style Managers care about workers feelings in the hope that they will work hard if they are happy.

11 Authority Obedience style A Theory X style were managers only want production from employees Used in a crisis situation

12 Team management style Theory Y style workers and production are important. Workers are encouraged to think for themselves. Believed by Blake and Mouton to be the best style.

13 Middle of the road style Make neither tasks or people the main concern. Blake and mouton think this is an ineffective style.

14 Tannenbaum and Schmidt Believe that managers work on a continuum were one end managers tell the workers everything and on the other employees receive freedom.


16 Styles Tells – subordinates are told what to do Sells – Managers convince workers that the decision that they have made is good. Consults - Subordinates opinions are asked before a decision is made. Participates – Employees are involved in making a decision and their opinions are asked.

17 Contingency theory says that no one way of managing is correct. They believe a proper manager can adapt to the situation.

18 Factors influencing management and leadership style 256 Culture – Does the staff except change Traits – level of motivation, experience and know how. Subordinates – how large is the staff what is their skill and experience Task – what needs to be done Time constraints -

19 Situational theory Close to situational theory except that situational has a greater focus on the managers and contingency cares more for internal and external factors.

20 Blanchard and Hersey model concentrates on workers Telling/directing style – workers need to be told what to do. Selling/coaching style – workers have skill but they have no commitment Participating/supporting style – workers have skill and some commitment but mangers still need to encourage Delegating style – Workers have high skill and commitment they can do many things by themselves.

21 Workers attitudes can be situational and managers have to adapt to the workers mood. One criticism is that it does not make a difference between leaders and mangers.

22 Path-goal theory Directive leadership – Supportive leadership Participative leadership Achievement orientated leadership

23 Managers need to keep in mind the Subordinate personality – Characteristics of the environment – resources available

24 Action-centered leadership Deals with four types of authority Position – official status Knowledge Personality Moral persuasion – convince others you are right (religion)

25 Difference between management and leadership Time and devotion – management is 9-5 leadership is 24 hours. Managers think short term leaders long term Roles and responsibilities - Leaders deal with broad problems while managers deal with routine tasks. Influence on others – leaders need to inspire others while managers are more concerned with getting work out of employees

26 Difference between management and leadership con. Risk taking – Managers should follow rules and policies. They solve problems and set an example for their staff. Leaders are crazier in their thinking and try to make changes. Vision – Managers like a stable work environment while leaders are better in a time of change.

27 Management Do things right Doing what’s right Directing and controlling others Delegating tasks Follow orders from senior staff Conform Problem solvers Official position Planning and monitoring Achievement of objectives by compliance of others Analysis Learned skills Organization of staff Leadership Do the right thing Knowing what’s right Motivating and inspiring others Empowering followers Inspire others to follow a vision Create change innovators Rank does not matter Strategic decision-making Achievement of objectives by acceptance of others Decisiveness Natural skills Support and guidance

28 Large business need to rely on both to succeed.

29 Functions of management

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