Presentation on theme: "RESPONSES BY GLOBAL ACTORS. Who deals with HR abuses? StatesUnited Nations International Criminal Tribunals International Criminal Court Inter-Governmental."— Presentation transcript:
Who deals with HR abuses? StatesUnited Nations International Criminal Tribunals International Criminal Court Inter-Governmental Organisations Non-Governmental Organisations (Amnesty International)
States Sign and Ratify the relevant human rights laws and treaties. Some states do not choose to include themselves. Some precedents have been set: 1998 Pinochet’s extradition from the UK for HR abuses whilst he was Chile’s dictator from 1973-1990. (Universal juristiction) US Alien Tort Claims Act allows US federal courts to try “any civil action by an alien for a tort committed in violation of the law of nations or a treaty of the US.” Bosnian-Serb leader Radovan Karadzic had case against him.
Global Governance: UN Their position is clear, and a response to WWII. UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) Deploy advisors to signatory states, provide funding for HR projects within peacekeeping missions, investigating and documenting HR situations. BUT OHCHR lacks enforcement powers. UN Human Rights Council examines, monitors and publicly reports on HR situations in states and territories.
Global Governance: Int Criminal Trib Prosecute, hold accountable those responsible for HR violations. EG International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) invokes the Geneva Convention. Slobodan Milosevic charged with crimes committed in Kosovo, Croatia and Bosnia during Presidency. Special Court for Sierra Leone, Charles Taylor charged. Very expensive to operate, costs are over 10% of UN budget.
Global Governance: ICC Global Jurisdiction Operates when states are unwilling or unable to prosecute those accused of serious crimes. Legitimacy and resources required for effective work challenged. Not all states are party to the ICC.
Inter-Governmental Organisations European Union’s European Court of Human Rights Can go beyond national government to this ‘regional’ body. Court has delivered more than 10,000 judgments which are binding on states concerned.
NGOs – Amnesty International Campaigns for HR Membership of over 3 million and operating in over 80 states. Highlight situations where HR abuses are happening. Petitions, vigils, awareness-raising.
Writing Practice Construct a paragraph evaluating how successful global actors have been in their responses to human rights abuses around the world.