# Introduction to Pneumatic Components Build a Working Pneumatic Circuit

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Introduction to Pneumatic Components Build a Working Pneumatic Circuit
Review These Slides and Build a Working Pneumatic Circuit

Introduction to Pneumatic Components
Bicycle Pump Energy Transformation Solenoid Valve Energy Control Storage Reservoir Energy Storage Pneumatic Cylinder or Linear Actuator Energy Transformation 3 Way Shut Off Valve Energy Control Order of Air Flow Regulator Energy Control

Bicycle Pump Piston Rod Pump Handle Pump Tube or Cylinder
Charges the Pneumatic Battery Pump Handle Pump Tube or Cylinder Converts Mechanical Energy into the Potential Energy of Pressurized Air Pressure Gauge Fill Valve With Locking Lever You can “Feel” the energy you are expending when pumping the reservoir up to pressure. The work you did compressing the air into the reservoir is now available to the pneumatic system you build. Each component either stores, controls or transforms the pressurized air you pumped into the cylinder. Piston Foot Stand

Energy Stored as Compressed Air
Pneumatic Reservoir Energy Stored as Compressed Air One Touch Quick Connect Fitting Connects to 3 Way Valve Schrader Valve Connects to Pump Air Storage Capacity is a Function of Pressure x Volume = Capacity The reservoir is like a battery. Instead of housing stored chemical energy that can be released as electrical energy, the reservoir stores energy in the form of compressed air. Some of the work done in “Pumping” or pressurizing the reservoir can be converted back into useful work by the pneumatic cylinder or actuator. The capacity of the storage reservoir is a product of the internal pressure x the internal volume. Stored air capacity is always given in terms of standard pressure. Standard pressure is recognized as being average atmospheric pressure equal to approximately 14.7 pounds per square inch or megapascal. Note 1 Megapascal (Mpa) = Approximately 145 Pounds per Square Inch (psi). This is the range of the pressure gauge on the regulator. Mounting Nuts (2)

Three Operational States or Modes
3 Way Valve Finger Knob Shown in Off Position Inlet Port From Reservoir Outlet Port To Regulator Direction Arrow On Valve Body Three way valves are used to activate or pressurize the pneumatic circuit. The vlave vents or depressurizes the downstream components each time it is turned off. This is an important safety feature. Every pneumatic circuit should include a 3 way venting valve. By depressurizing the downstream components, the working pneumatic components are deactivated and the mechanisms they control cannot be operated accidentally or inadvertently. Three Operational States or Modes OFF – Vent – On

Air Flow Directional Arrow
The Regulator Controlled Pressure Side Pressure Gauge 0-150 psi 0-1 MPa Pressure Adjusting Knob *Pull out before turning *Push in to lock *Turn Clockwise to Raise Pressure. Air Flow Directional Arrow The regulator controls the air pressure of the pneumatic circuit components downstream of the regulator. Designing machines that work effectively with lower pressures means you will have more effective reservoir capacity. High Pressure Inlet Lower Pressure Settings Means Less Air Consumption

The Regulator continued

The Regulator continued
Note: Be certain to verify the direction of air flow through the regulator. The incoming air (from The 3 Way Valve) Enters the port marked with an arrow.

3/2 Solenoid Valve Valve Body Actuator Port “A2” Pressure Port “P1”
From Regulator The Solenoid Valve has 3 ports, the Pressure inlet Port P1, The Actuator Port A2, and the Exhaust Port E. The solenoid has two modes of operation, on and off. In the de energized state, the pressure port is closed. This solenoid is specified as a 3/2 NC (Normally Closed) solenoid valve. Be certain to connect the P1 port to the pressure side or regulator side of the circuit. Connect the A2 port to the actuator. Because the solenoid valve is electrically operated it can be controlled using a transistor H-bridge controller. The GEARS-IDS valve controller allows interfacing the operation of this valve with either PWM RC controllers, or microprocessor control. Exhaust Port “E” Solenoid Wires

The Pneumatic Cylinder or Linear Actuator
Speed Valve Piston and Rod Clevis One Touch Quick Connect Fitting The Pneumatic Cylinder or Linear Actuator transforms the stored energy of compressed air into useful work. The cylinder stroke refers to the difference between the actuators length at full retraction and full extension. The bore refers to the interior diameter of the cylinder body. The theoretical force of the piston is a product of the Pressure x the Area of the piston. Note that the pressurized air must enter and exit the cylinder from the same port. The Speed valve increases and retards the flow of air into or out of the cylinder inlet port. Cylinder Body Pneumatic Mounting Bracket Cylinder Force = Pressure x Piston Area

One Touch Quick Connectors

Pneumatic Component Connections
Build It Test It Use It

After Building and Testing the Pneumatic Circuit
Determine These Performance Characteristics How many times will the pneumatic cylinder cycle at 50 psi when the reservoir is charged to 150 psi? What is the theoretical force of the piston at 50 psi? What is the actual force of the piston at 50 psi? What is the speed of the piston in inches per second at 50 psi? Does pressure affect speed and if so, can you measure and graph the relationship? Which answers can be found mathematically? Which should be measured directly?

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