4 Session Overview Myth or Fact? Cummin’s BICS and CALP Quadrants of BICS and CALPCommon Underlying ProficiencyVygotsky’s Zone of Proximal DevelopmentKrashen’s Comprehensible InputRoessingh’s Vocabulary CountsOxford’s ESL Learner StrategiesCarla
5 Myth or Fact?Read the following statements. Decide if they are myths or facts.Place an A beside Myths and B beside Facts:Children have acquired a second language as soon as they can speak it.Children learn second languages quickly and easily.The younger the child the more skilled in acquiring a second language.The more time students spend in a second language context, the quicker they learn the language.All children learn a second language in the same way.
6 Myth 1Children have acquired a second language as soon as they can speak it.
7 Iceberg The iceberg metaphor BICS (1-2 years) Basic Interpersonal Communication SkillsSurface level – Here and NowFamiliar ContentFace to Face ConversationHigh Frequency Vocabulary – 2000 wordsSimple Sentence StructureLow PressureCALP (5 or more years)Cognitive Academic Language ProficiencyExperience and exposure to cultureLectures, formal, written text, specialized terminology, humour, culture, idioms, textbook language, social appropriateness, non-verbal communicationsLimited Interaction (textbook)More AbstractLess familiar contentDecontextualizedLow frequency VocabularyHigh Stakes (lots of pressure)The iceberg metaphor
8 BICS or CALP? Reading a textbook Discussing the theme in a novel Writing a journal response about personal experiences
9 Apply it tomorrow… Think of an ELL in your class. What is their level of BICS and CALP?What is the level of teacher talk in the classroom?What is the level of student response in the classroomSample student responsesOne hundred fifty-two..this hundred place?For expanded notation you have to know place value.
10 2. Children learn second languages quickly and easily Myth 22. Children learn second languages quickly and easily
11 The Dual Iceberg: Full Bilingual Proficiency SURFACEFEATURESOF L2OF L1COMMON UNDERLYING PROFICIENCYCarlaThe “Dual Iceberg” Representation of Bilingual Proficiency (Cummins, 1980, 36; 1996, 111)
12 Young Arrivals: Low Levels of L1 and L2 (balanced but inadequate bilingualism) Underdeveloped potential that needs to be built in L2SURFACEFEATURE SOF L2FEATURESOF L1COMMONUNDERLYINGPROFICIENCYCarla
13 Young Arrivals: Low L1, Better Developed L2 Underdeveloped potentialSURFACEFEATURE SOF L2FEATURESOF L1COMMONUNDERLYINGPROFICIENCYCarla
14 Junior High Arrivals: Uneven L1 and L2 Underdeveloped potential that may be developed in L1 and/or L2SURFACEFEATURE SOF L2FEATURESOF L1COMMONUNDERLYINGPROFICIENCYCarla
15 Older Arrivals: Full L1 Proficiency, Intermediate L2 Proficiency Underdeveloped potential- Use L1 to help build this in L2SURFACEFEATURE SOF L2FEATURESOF L1COMMONUNDERLYINGPROFICIENCYInterpersonalCommunicationBasic SkillsCarla
16 What’s your CUP?Create a dual iceberg to represent your language proficiency in L1 and L2If you do not have an L2, think of a student in your school or your own child and their dual iceberg.
17 Apply it tomorrow… Is this a good strategy? Talking to a peer in L2 about a new conceptUsing a translator or bilingual dictionarySuggesting a family continue to talk in L1 at homeSupporting a families decision to send their children to a weekend language school
18 Myth 33. The younger the child the more skilled in acquiring a second language
19 Words, words, words…What is the average vocabulary of a native English speaking student entering grade 10?Write down a number on the screen
20 Roessingh’s Vocabulary Trajectories VocabularyAgeNativeSpeakerElementary with helpElementary without helpJunior High with helpSenior High with help12400310007800010125000132500154000015,00015000100008,0001620,0001800016,0001725,0001810000030,00018,00026,00024,000
21 What words do I teach? Word Lists: Ogden’s Basic Words (850)Comprehensive Vocabulary Word List (by topic):
22 Some Types of Vocabulary? Subject specific - the words related to curriculum topics (These might also be in context defined.)Context-defined - multiple meanings - transferable words across subjects i.e., “role”, noun clusters; i.e., ”global warming”Academic Words – the language of thinking processes required to do academic tasks; i.e., “ compare”, “contrast”Connectors – words and phrases used to show the relationship of ideas; i.e., ”whereas”, “the most important”Figurative Language –Words or phrases that go beyond literal meaning and require contextual, social and/or cultural reference for understanding i.e., ”fork in the road”
23 Identify the type of Vocabulary Math Dictionary: Certain We use the word certain in probability to describe events that will definitely happen. July is certain to come after June. If a coin is tossed it is certain to land with either heads or tails face up.Subject specificContext-definedAcademic WordsConnectorsFigurative Language
24 Identify the type of Vocabulary Certain We use the word certain in probability to describe events that will definitely happen. July is certain to come after June. If a coin is tossed it is certain to land with either heads or tails face up.Subject specificContext-definedAcademic WordsConnectorsFigurative Language
25 Where to find different types of words? Word Lists:Subject Specific Word list:Words with Multiple Meanings:Academic Word ListConnector Words - Common Transition Words:Figurative Language arts/343-figurative-language.html
26 What words for which age? Kids list (http://www.lextutor.ca/vp/kids/kid_list_display/ )
27 Apply it tomorrow…Put a sample of your spoken language in the vocabulary profiler on lextutor.Put a sample of some students spoken language in the vocabulary profilerFor your next lessonLook at the vocabulary required for your next lesson?Recognize the vocabulary level of your students.Decide what vocabulary to teach
28 Myth 44. The more time students spend in a second language context, the quicker they learn the language.
29 Quality and Quantity Time ELLs benefit from:Explicit language instructionAppropriate resourcesLanguage learning strategies…At the ‘just right level’
30 Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development is the difference between what a child can do on their own and what they can do with assistance.It includes all things that a child can do only with the help of a more-knowledgeable other.It is a scaffolding process, where supports are provided by a parent, teacher, or peer who has already has mastery of the task.
31 Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development Practice:Think of a learner in your classThink of one thing they can do on their ownThink of one thing they can do with assistance now
32 Krashen’s Comprehensible Input Comprehensible means to understandInput means “what goes in”Learning takes place when the brain can connect new information to existing knowledge.It is important to provide students information at their language level.Language proficiency is increased by gradual steps always working from student’s present language level.Use 1st language to help make connections in 2nd language
33 Comprehensible Input Hypothesis The learner learn language he can understand by connecting it to known concepts and prior knowledge.Language that is not understood is just “L2 noise”
34 Comprehensible Input + 1 (CI +1) Input must be comprehensible and also needs to be one level of linguistic complexity beyond the learner’s level to develop L2 proficiency.
35 Apply it tomorrow… Think about what is being taught. Think about the Comprehensible Input Level of the studentAre any adjustments required?
36 Myth 5All children learn a second language in the same way.
37 Learner ProfilesOn the screen write the different aspects of the learner profile (preferences, modalities, affect, attributes etc.)
38 More Krashen: Affective Hypothesis Motivation, self-esteem, and interpersonal acceptance can limit or enhance the speed and amount of L2 learned.
39 Affective Filter Hypothesis A filter or mental block can prevent L2 from getting in if a learner is anxious, afraid to take risks and in a stressful learning environment.Relaxation, confidence to take risks, and a pleasant learning environment help to lower the filter.
40 Aptitude HypothesisLearners do have “innate” (natural abilities) aptitude to learn L2.More impactful than aptitude is the learner’s attitude, which can enhance or impede the natural abilities to learn L2.
41 The Learner’s Affective Traits Self-ConceptThe way I see my selfThe way I interact with othersMy disposition towards learning tasksThe way I deal with problem solving and challengesSkills (related to literacy, numeracy, relationships and problem solving etc.)Strategies; cognitive, meta-cognitive, linguistic, socio-affective etc.Cognitive PotentialMotivation (Intrinsic, Extrinsic)
42 Rebecca Oxford’s ESL Learner Strategies Avoidance/reduction strategiesMessage replacement (try to simplify)Topic Avoidance (change the subject)Message abandonment (give up!)Achievement/Compensatory StrategiesCircumlocution (talk around– describing when word is unknown)Approximation (word that is close to intended word:Restructuring (re-stating in a different way)Literal Translation (from L1 to L2 or L2 to L1, occasional errors)
43 Rebecca Oxford’s ESL Learner Strategies Stalling or time-gaining strategiesFillers, hesitation (um, like, ahh, you know)Self and other repetition (echoing and copying)Self Monitoring StrategiesSelf-initiated repair (recognize own errors and ask for correction)Self-rephrasing (re-state independently and self correct)Interactional StrategiesAppeals for helpDirect – “What do you call..?”Indirect – “I don’t know the word in English”Meaning Negotiation StrategiesClarification requests – “What does this mean?”Confirmation requests – “Does this mean _______ or ______?”
44 Learner ProfilesThink of language of assessments and language level of studentLearning Styles Self Assessment:Student self assessment of languageStudent self assessment of languageESL K-12 Proficiency Benchmarks
45 Think about it…What things do you currently know about your students? What other additional information would you like to find out?
46 Where we’ve been… Myth or Fact? Cummin’s BICS and CALP Quadrants of BICS and CALPCommon Underlying ProficiencyVygotsky’s Zone of Proximal DevelopmentKrashen’s Comprehensible InputRoessingh’s Vocabulary CountsOxford’s ESL Learner Strategies
47 ATA Webinar and Print series: Understanding ESL Learners Graphic by Ray Campbell
48 Wiki - Entry+ESL+-+Intake+StrategiesType in one “aha” or question
49 Thank You! Your participation was appreciated! Please complete the session evaluation which Jann will you.Join us for a session on Differentiation for ELLs by Carla Fisher on March 2, 2010