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Response to Intervention

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Presentation on theme: "Response to Intervention"— Presentation transcript:

1 Response to Intervention

2 Why care about RtI? Reason 1
Schools are about the business of teaching students skills To be life-long learners To lead productive adult lives

3 Why care about RtI? Reason 2
NCLB: all students must demonstrate proficiency on math and English language arts by the end of the school year RtI reasearch indicates that 94-98% of all students can meet grade level benchmarks when provided with appropriate general education intervention

4 Why care about RtI? Reason 3
RtI supports quality implementation of special education via Special education being part of a district’s overall intervention process Assistance with child find Alternative approach to SLD identification May reduce the need for traditional standardized testing May assist in timely ID of suspected disability May assist in adverse impact determinations Progress monitoring and problem solving strategies

5 What is RTI? A tiered model that is used in place of the established discrepancy model for determining interventions for students struggling in school It is a model that relies on data-based decision making CBM provides a portion of the data needed to change instruction and intervention Identifying and providing high quality instruction and research-based interventions matched to student needs Talk about old LD criteria

6 What is RTI A district-wide process Identifies students
All buildings/grade levels will participate in the process Identifies students Not achieving to benchmark standards And/or whose behavior is affecting educational performance Uses a problem solving framework to address learning needs

7 RtI Core Principles Commit to effectively teaching all children
Intervene early Support learning with a systematic multi-tier service delivery model Use a problem-solving model to make instructional/intervention decisions Use scientific, research-based interventions Monitor student progress to inform instruction Use data to make decisions Use assessment for three different purposes

8 RTI Core Principles and Components
If we do this: Use research-based, scientifically validated tiers of instruction and intervention Scientifically based screening and progress monitoring to inform instruction and intervention Use of data in the decision making process We can get this: Prevention and Early Intervention Problem solving is building a better support system for general education Every student is everyone’s responsibility

9 RTI Tiers Tier 1 80% Tier 3 5% Tier 2 15%
Warning, these levels are IDEAL levels, not necessarily where our school will be

10 Tier 1 Students with no supplemental interventions needed All students in all settings Preventive and Proactive Tier 2 Students who are at-risk and need supplemental interventions Generally small group instruction with additional or different curricula Some students High efficiency, rapid response Tier 3 Students who are highly at risk and need intensive interventions Generally one-on-one instruction Can be, but not necessarily special education students Assessment-based, high intensity Generally of a longer duration Tier 3 does not mean special education! Information about how tiers are used together, if you get tier 2 you still get tier 3

11 We've started the intervention, what’s next?
Stay the course If a student is successful, keep them in program as it is If you think the student is ready to transition back to Tier 1 only services, gradually reduce the intervention and closely monitor their progress If the student begins to have trouble again, go back to what was working If they are doing well with no additional intervention services needed let them go back to Tier 1 only

12 RTI Requires schools to use research-based curricula and intervention strategies at all levels Be warned- many curriculums will call themselves research-based, but in fact are not Example of research based and not research based

13 Which research is good? Research conducted with a wide variety of ages, SES groups, states, students with varying ability levels Studies that compare two or more programs at once Multiple studies Just one study is not enough Large sample size The more students in the study the better

14 RTI is the Problem Solving Model
Steps in the Model What is the problem? Why does the problem exist? What should be done to address the problem? Did the intervention work, and what’s next?

15 Problem Solving Model Problem Identification Problem Analysis
Is there a problem? What is it? Plan Evaluation Did Our Plan Work? Problem Analysis Why is it happening? Plan Development What shall we do about it?

16 RTI decision-making model (Problem-Solving Model)
CBM is a tool for making the following decisions: Problem Identification Is the difference between what is expected in the general education curriculum and how the student performs large enough to warrant further assessment? Problem Certification How severe is the problem? Exploring Solutions What are the goals for the intervention? What is the content of the intervention? What is the process of the intervention? Evaluating Solutions Is the student attaining the established goals? If not, does the intervention require modification? Problem Solution Is the discrepancy still significant or can resources be reduced?

17 Problem-Solving Model dictates specific information to collect at each step
Problem-Solving Decision Measurement activity Specific Task Problem Identification Observe student differences between expected and actual performance Peer-referenced or criterion referenced comparison Problem Certification Describe the magnitude of the difference between actual and expected performance Survey Level Assessment (SLA) Exploring Solutions Determine options for annual goals Write annual goal based on SLA Evaluating Solutions Monitor intervention implementation & changes in student performance Collect progress monitoring data & compare with aimline Problem Solution Observe student difference between expected and actual performance Repeat peer-referenced comparison and SLA

18 Tenets of the Problem-Solving Model and Response to Intervention (RTI)
Learning occurs as an interaction between the student and the environment Problems are defined as a discrepancy between what is expected and what is occurring All children will make progress with quality instruction Because the outcomes of typically effective interventions cannot be predicted with certainty, we must measure progress & outcomes Our job, as educational personnel, is to solve educational problems that students experience in schools.

19 Instructional Intervention Plan
Instructional Procedures: Skills to be taught & teaching strategies (i.e. phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension). Materials used Workbook, Accelerated Reader, Picture cards, etc. Arrangements Small group vs. 1:1 teaching etc. Time Time allotted for skill instruction (i.e. 15 minutes) Motivational Strategies Praise, rewards, grades, etc.

20 Instructional Intervention Plan
Student Name: Teacher Name: Goal: Instructional Procedures Materials Arrangements Time Motivational Strategies Focus/Skill I Teaching Strategy

21 Interventions Interventions must be implemented similarly to the way they were in research If we deviate from the methods used in research we are not doing the same intervention, thus they are no longer research based Interventions must be in place for 6-8 weeks before efficacy can be evaluated Shorter periods of time cannot truly show change in a valid and reliable way We need to 1. support and extend the critical elements of the core program 2. provide additional instruction in critical areas 3. provide more instruction or practice in the areas of need

22 Big Changes No Child Left Behind IDEIA Reauthorization 2004
Illinois Rules and Regulations President’s Commission on Special Education Excellence This gives us the opportunity to make significant changes in how we help our students!

23 IDEIA 2004 “the local education agency shall not be required to take into consideration whether a child has a severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability” “may use a process which determines if a child responds to scientific, research-based interventions” If we suspect a student has a learning disability we have to consider, along with data, that the child was provided appropriate high-quality, research based intervention in general education settings We must rule out lack of scientifically based instruction in Reading and Math, and lack of English proficiency

24 CBM CBM stands for Curriculum Based Measurement
It is a way to monitor students and get them the help they need as they need it Is applicable in all academic areas and behavior

25 Problems with Most Traditional Assessments:
Too long Too complicated Too infrequent Too hard to interpret Too insensitive to progress Too different from curriculum materials Too vague for informing instruction And likely out of touch with IDEIA 2004

26 Characteristics of Curriculum-Based Measures
Short Simple Frequent Easy to interpret Sensitive to progress From your curriculum materials Informs instructional decision making Aligns with the IDEIA 2004 assessment requirements Every minute spent on assessing takes time away from teaching. So assessments should be efficient and provide information that will guide instruction and improve student incomes.

27 History of Curriculum-Based Measurement (Deno, 2003)
The developers of CBM sought to establish a measurement system that: teachers could use efficiently would produce accurate, meaningful information that would easily measure progress could answer questions about program effectiveness would inform instructional decisions

28 CBM Critical Features CBM is distinctive from curriculum-based assessment Standardized and highly prescriptive Reliable and Valid scores Alternative forms of equal difficulty Samples the year-long curriculum Repeated measurement on a single task Changes in performance on this task are then interpreted to reflect change in a student’s proficiency

29 “Big Ideas” about CBM CBM are simple, efficient, valid tools for decision making in the basic skills areas CBM are dynamic indicators of basic skills Dynamic: Is sensitive to change over time Indicators: General outcome measures Basic Skills: Focus on basic skills because these are the most predictive of general academic achievement (e.g., reading, math, written expression, and spelling)

30 Basic Curriculum-Based Measures
Academic Area Task & Administration Time Scoring Units Reading Oral reading from passage for 1 minute # of Words Read Correct # of Errors Math Completion of computational problems for 2-5 minutes # of Correct Digits # Correct Problems Written Expression Writing a story given a story starter for 3 minutes # of Words Written # of Correct Writing Sequences Spelling Writing spelling words dictated every 5 seconds for 2 minutes # of Correct Letter Sequences # of Words Spelled Correctly Go over the reading probe, handout #s 1 and 2

31 CBM is like a thermometer

32 What CBM can tell us about academic “health”
If we have a reading “problem” worth watching If we have a serious “problem” It gives us a goal for our intervention If our intervention is effective If our intervention is successful End of year first grade student reading 30 Words Read Correct (WRC) Per Minute End of year first grade student reading 10 WRC Per Minute End of year first grade student reading 50 WRC Per Minute First grade student’s reading is going up 2 words per week Reading level is within “normal” range

33 Rationale for Using CBM
Strong Research Base - Over 30 years of CBM research has demonstrated that when teachers use CBM for instructional decision making: Students learn more Teacher decision making improves Students are more aware of their performance Teachers can write legally defensible IEP goals (Yell & Stecker, 2003) Aligned with IDEIA and RTI

District Wide Use benchmarks to monitor all students 3 times a year-fall, winter, and spring Identify students at-risk Classroom Monitor students who are at-risk.

35 CBM progress monitoring procedures
Define the annual goal in measurable terms (Words read correct per minute) Draw a goal line connecting the student’s initial performance to the end-of-year goal to illustrate the rate of progress by which the teacher expects the student to achieve. Frequently administer CBM probes (2x per week, weekly, biweekly) Plot the scores and apply standard decision-making rules to the graphed data. When the student’s actual rate of progress is not as rapid as the anticipated rate of progress, the teacher implements an intervention likely to enhance student achievement

36 Progress Monitoring Graph
Talk about decision making and graphs, show Excel template and how easy it is to graph

37 Reasons for Progress Monitoring
Progress monitoring is conducted frequently and is designed to: Estimate rates of student improvement Identify students who are not demonstrating adequate progress Compare the efficacy of different forms of instruction, and design more effective, individualized instructional programs for learners CBM is formative – it informs instructional decisions

38 Reasons for using CBM to Write Goals
Measures performance and progress in the general curriculum (IDEIA 2004) Produces ambitious, specific measurable goals (IDEIA 2004) Allows for both summative and formative evaluation (IDEIA 2004) Allows for frequent reports to parents that are easily understood (IDEIA 2004) Decision-rules for making changes when students are unexpectedly not making progress (IDEIA 2004) CBM procedures have been validated for use in writing observable and measurable goals and making statements about student’s progress in the general curriculum

39 Research Approved Curricula- Reading
REWARDS Approved for Grades 4-12 Most appropriate for Tier 2 or 3 Collaborative Strategic Reading Approved as Tier 1 for Grades 3-6 Approved as Tier 2 for Grades 7-12 REWARDS also has curricula specifically applied to Science and Social Studies reading passages. Be sure to match our curricula to the needs of our school population, take into account SES levels, if the students are alread fluent readers, etc.

40 Research Approved Curricula- Reading Cont.
Vocabulary Through Morphemes Approved for Grades 4-8 Best for Tier 2 Six Minute Solution Approved for Grades K – 9 Most appropriate for Tier 2 or 3

41 Research Approved Curricula- Math
I CAN Learn® Pre-Algebra and Algebra Approved for Grades 6-12 Can be Tier 2 or Tier 3 Saxon Middle School Math Approved for Grades K through 12 Can be Tier 1 or 2

42 CBM Materials & Resources
What Works Clearing House Aimsweb / Edformation DIBELS INTERVENTIONS

43 Additional Resources PBIS Behavior Supports
Institute for Academic Success Matching interventions to students RtI Resources

44 More Resources National Center on Student Progress Monitoring
Consortium on Reading Excellence Florida Center for Reading Research Oregon Reading First Center Texas Center for Reading and Language Arts

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