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Do now! Have a look through your test!

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Moles!

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Equal masses of different elements will contain different numbers of atoms (as atoms of different elements have different masses)

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Moles! It is sometimes useful for physicists and chemists (but we dont care about them) to compare the number of atoms or molecules in an amount of substance. To do this we use the idea of moles. A chemist

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Moles! One mole of a substance contains the same number of molecules/atoms as in 12 grams of carbon-12. This number (of atoms or molecules) is known as the Avogadro constant (N A ) which is equal to 6.02 x 10 23 You need to learn this definition.

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How big is 6 x 10 23 ? Imagine the whole of the United states You are here!

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How big is 6 x 10 23 ? Imagine the whole of the United states covered in unpopped popcorn

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How big is 6 x 10 23 ? Imagine the whole of the United states covered in unpopped popcorn to a depth of six miles!

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How big is 6 x 10 23 ? Imagine the whole of the United states covered in unpopped popcorn to a depth of six miles! Count the grains and that is 6 x 10 23 ! 600000000000000000000000

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Moles! For example, Hydrogen (H 2 ) has a relative molecular mass of 2, so 2 grams of hydrogen (one mole) contains the same number of molecules as atoms in 12g of carbon-12 (6.02 x 10 23 ) YouTube - Happy Mole Day to You Chemistry Song YouTube - Junior Chemistry: The Mole 1 YouTube - The Mole - Amadeo Avogadro's Number

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Moles! It follows therefore that 7g of lithium (atomic mass 7), 20g neon (atomic mass 20) or 39 g potassium (atomic mass 39) all contain the same number of atoms (1 mole or 6.02 x 10 23 atoms)

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Moles! The number of moles of a substance can thus be found by dividing the mass of substance by its relative atomic or molecular mass n = mass/RAM

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Example How many moles of sulphur atoms are there in 80g of sulphur? How many grams of carbon would have the same number of atoms?

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Example How many moles of sulphur atoms are there in 80g of sulphur? How many grams of carbon would have the same number of atoms? N = mass/RAM = 80/32 = 2.5 moles

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Example How many moles of sulphur atoms are there in 80g of sulphur? How many grams of carbon would have the same number of atoms? N = mass/RAM = 80/32 = 2.5 moles Mass of carbon = RAM x n = 12 x 2.5 = 30 g

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Relative formula mass We can use the idea of moles and apply it to molecules using relative formula mass. C 2 H 5 OH RFM = (2 x 12) + (6 x 1) + (1 x 16) = 46 46g of ethanol = I mole of ethanol molecules

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Lets try some questions! Page 81 Questions 1 to 8

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Can you read through the Moles and gases section page 96 and 97?

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Moles of gases YouTube - Happy Mole Day to You Chemistry SongYouTube - Happy Mole Day to You Chemistry Song YouTube - Junior Chemistry: The Mole 1 YouTube - The Mole - Amadeo Avogadro's NumberYouTube - The Mole - Amadeo Avogadro's Number

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Equal volumes Luckily, equal volumes of gas contain the same number of particles (at the same temperature and pressure)

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Equal volumes For example, 1 litre of nitrogen contains the same number of molecules as there are atoms in one litre of Argon. A litre is 1000 cm 3 or 1 dm 3

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Mole of gas One mole of any gas occupies 24 dm 3 (24000 cm 3 ) at room temperature and pressure (25°C and 1 atmosphere) You will be given this in a question

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At r.t.p. (25°C and 1 atmosphere) Moles of gas = volume (cm 3 )/24000 = volume (dm 3 )/24 Learn this!

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Standard temperature (0°C) and pressure (s.t.p.)

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More questions!

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Moles in solution

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Concentration/molarity 1M or 1 mol/dm 3 means there is one mole of a substance dissolved in 1 dm 3 (or 1000 cm 3 ) of solution

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# of moles = concentration x volume (cm 3 )/1000 You need to know this too!

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Lets do some more reading and then try some more questions! (pages 344 to 347)

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Working out the formula

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1.4 g of Nitrogen reacts with 0.3 g of hydrogen to form a compound. What is the formula of the compound?

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Working out the formula 1.4 g of Nitrogen reacts with 0.3 g of hydrogen to form a compound. What is the formula of the compound? First work out the number of moles 1.4g Nitrogen = mass/RAM = 1.4/14 = 0.1 0.3g hydrogen = mass/RAM = 0.3/1 = 0.3

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Working out the formula 1.4 g of Nitrogen reacts with 0.3 g of hydrogen to form a compound. What is the formula of the compound? Work out the ratio of the number of moles of each element to the lowest whole numbersN:H 0.1:0.3 1:3

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Working out the formula 1.4 g of Nitrogen reacts with 0.3 g of hydrogen to form a compound. What is the formula of the compound? Therefore there are 3 times as many hydrogen atoms as N atoms in the compound. The formula must be NH 3 (ammonia)

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Working out the formula A student adds 4.8 g of magnesium to excess dilute hydrochloric acid. What mass of magnesium chloride would be made?

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Working out the formula A student adds 4.8 g of magnesium to excess dilute hydrochloric acid. What mass of magnesium chloride would be made? First write the balanced equation Mg + 2HClMgCl 2 + H 2

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Working out the formula A student adds 4.8 g of magnesium to excess dilute hydrochloric acid. What mass of magnesium chloride would be made? Find out how many moles of magnesium are being used # moles = mass/RAM = 4.8/24 = 0.2 moles

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Working out the formula A student adds 4.8 g of magnesium to excess dilute hydrochloric acid. What mass of magnesium chloride would be made? From the equation we can see the number of magnesium atoms is the same as the number of magnesium chloride molecules. So if 0.2 moles of Mg are used we should produce 0.2 moles of MgCl 2 Mg + 2HClMgCl 2 + H 2

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Working out the formula A student adds 4.8 g of magnesium to excess dilute hydrochloric acid. What mass of magnesium chloride would be made? Work out the mass of 0.2 moles of MgCl 2 RFM (RMM) = 24 + (2 x 35.5) = 95 Mass of 0.2 moles of MgCl = 0.2 x 95 = 19g

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Lets try some more questions! Pages 82 and 83 Read through the sheet first! Norwegian just discovering the cost of a beer in Oslo

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I feel a test coming on moles! Thursday 19 th June

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AP Chemistry Chapter 3 Chemical Quantities (The Mole)

AP Chemistry Chapter 3 Chemical Quantities (The Mole)

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