3 Why do ice cubes float on water? Why does a hot air balloon rise? BUOYANCY FLOATING AND SINKINGWhy do ice cubes float on water?Why does a hot air balloon rise?
4 What is wrong with the picture of the ship on the left?
5 If I suspend a block on a rope, what force do we need to pull with on the rope to make the block hang steady?ropeT=?mIf I immerse the block in water, what happens to the tension in the rope?W
6 Buoyancy T FB W – T – FB = 0 T = W - FB W + A useful model: Immersion of the block produces an upward buoyant force, which at least partly counteracts the weight.TFBApply Newton’s 2nd LawW – T – FB = 0T = W - FB+W
8 Archimedes’ Principle T = W - FBWhen an object is immersed in a fluid, there is an upward buoyant force equal to the weight of the volume of fluid displaced by the object.This applies to either full or partial immersion (i.e. a “sinking” or “floating” object)TFBmW
9 T = W T = W - FB Hung Floating Tension Weight Tension FB Weight W a t rdisplacedWeight
10 Floating: fully submerged buoyantforceequalsWaterweightdisplacedFloating: fully submergedSome fish can remain at a fixeddepth without moving by storinggas in their bladder.WaterdisplacedSubmarines take on or dischargewater into their ballast tanks
12 A 200 tonne ship enters a lock of a canal A 200 tonne ship enters a lock of a canal. The fit between the sides of the lock is so tight that the weight of the water left in the lock after it closes is much less than the ship's weight. Can the ship float?
14 Can we explain in terms of a push or pull ? So buoyancy is a force.Can we explain in terms of a push or pull ?topArorFhbottomF = (pbottom – ptop) AF = (patm + rF g h – patm) AF = rF g h A = rF VF gF = mF g = Weight of displaced fluid =Buoyant force
15 ?ATwo cups are filled to the same level. One cup has ice cubes floating on it. Which weighs more?BTwo cups are filled to the same level. One of the cups has ice cubes floating in it. When the ice melts, in which cup is the level higher?
16 ?ATwo cups are filled to the same level. One cup has ice cubes floating on it. Which weighs more?BTwo cups are filled to the same level. One of the cups has ice cubes floating in it. When the ice melts, in which cup is the level higher?cups weigh the samethe level is the same
17 A Cartesian diver can be made by completely filling an empty soft drink bottle with water. A medicine dropper is then placed in the bottle so that a small air pocket is trapped at the top of the dropper. When the bottle is squeezed, the medicine dropper sinks. When the bottle is release, the diver rises.Why does the dropper sink when the bottle is squeezed?Your answer should include a list of the important physical quantities involved, the names and descriptions of the physical principles involved.
18 ?A giant clam has a mass of 470 kg and a volume of m3 lies at the bottom of a freshwater lake. How much force is needed to lift it at constant velocity?
19 FT + FB m a = 0 FG FT + FB = FG F = 0 FT = ? N FT = FG - FB m = 470 kgVclam = m3g = 9.8 m.s-2water = 1.0x103 kg.m-3FT + FB = FGF = 0FT = ? Nma = 0FGFT = FG - FBFT = m g - water g VdisplacedFT = m g - water g VclamFT = (470)(9.8) – (103)(9.8)(0.350) NFT = 1.2103 N
20 A ring weighs 6.32710-3 N in air and 6.03310-3 N when submerged in water.What is the volume of the ring?What is the density of the ring?What is the ring made of?airwater
21 Volume? density? What is the ring made of? airwaterFTair = FGFTwater + FB = FGknow FTairknow FTwatercalculateFBknow FGweight of ring FGMass of ring mringArchimedes’ PrincipleFB = weight of water displacedFB = rF Vring grring = mring / VringVring = 3.0x10-8 m3 rring = 2.2x104 kg.m-3 maybe gold
22 A wooden raft has a density of 0. 500103 kg. m-3 and dimensions of 3 A wooden raft has a density of 0.500103 kg.m-3 and dimensions of 3.05 m 6.10 m m. How deep does it sink into the water when unloaded? What is the maximum number of 70 kg people can the raft carry before it sinks?
23 A hydrometer is a simple instrument used to measure the density of a liquid by measuring how deep it sinks in a liquid.A particular hydrometer was made of a uniform cylindrical rod that could float vertically in a liquid. The length of the rod was m and its cross sectional area was 2.0010-4 m2. The mass of the rod was 4.5010-2 kg. To calibrate the hydrometer it is placed into water that had a density of 1.000103 kg.m-3.How far from the bottom end of the rod should a mark of be placed to indicate the relative density of the water?The hydrometer sinks to a depth of m when placed into an alcohol solution. What is the density of the alcohol solution?