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Introduction to Microbiology

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Microbiology"— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Microbiology
Dr. Sudheer Kher Prof & HOD, Dept of Microbiology

2 Objectives Identify the contributions to microbiology made by Koch, Pasteur, van Leeuwenhoek, Lister, Ehrlich, Fleming, and Jenner Describe the system of scientific nomenclature used to name microorganisms List major groups of microorganisms and their habitats

3 Introduction to Microbiology
Dept of Microbiology Microbiology Clinical Microbiology Medical Microbilogy Scope & Branches of Microbiology Theory, Practicals, Exams Basic functioning of Micro Lab Universal Safety Precautions

4 Historical YEAR NAME ACHIEVEMENT 1st century BC Varo
Concept of “Animalia minuta” 1546 Fracostorius Contagion- Cause of syphilis 1590 Jensen Hand lens 1683 Antony van Leeuwenhoek First Microscope “Animalcules” 1678 Robert Hook Compound microscope 1745 Needham (Priest) Abiogenesis 1836 Schulze & Schwan Air contains microbes 1840 Oliver Homes, Poet physician Contageousness & Puerperal fever 1846 Ignaz Semmelweis Cause, concept & prophylaxis of child-bed fever 1853 Augustino Bassi Silk worm disease due to a fungus

5 Louis Pasteur 1822-95 French chemist Wine industry problem
Father/Founder of Modern Microbiology Fermentation – a microbiological process Beer/Wine not produced without microbes

6 Louis Pasteur 1822-95 Methods & Techniques of cultivation
His discovery that most infectious diseases are caused by germs, known as the "germ theory of disease," is one of the most important in medical history. Introduced sterilization Tyndalization (Tyndal-1877) Studied Silkworm disease, anthrax, chicken cholera, hydrophobia.

7 Louis Pasteur Introduced live vaccines – Jenner (Cow-pox vaccine) Antirabic vaccine Pasteur Institutes

8 Joseph Lister 1867 Prof of Surgery, Glasgow Royal Infirmatory
Introduced Antiseptic Surgery Called Father of Antiseptic Surgery

9 Robert Koch 1843-1910 German general practitioner
Perfected bacteriological techniques Isolated pure cultures of bacteria for the first time Discovered Anthrax bacilli, Cholera vibrio, M. tuberculosis Father of Medical Microbiology Hypersensitivity



12 Historical YEAR NAME ACHIEVEMENT 1902 Walter Reed
Yellow fever in Cuba – viral nature 1909 Landsteiner Polio transmission 1929 Alexander Fleming First antibiotic -Penicillin 1930 1934 Good pasture Ruska Virus cultivation 1941 Flury Use of Penicillin therapeutically



15 Highlights in the History of Microbiology
1677 Observed "little animals" (Antony Leeuwenhoek) 1796 First scientific Small pox vaccination (Edward Jenner) 1850 Advocated washing hands to stop the spread of disease (Ignaz Semmelweis) 1861 Disproved spontaneous generation (Louis Pasteur) 1862 Supported Germ Theory of Disease (Louis Pasteur) 1867 Practiced antiseptic surgery (Joseph Lister)

16 Highlights in the History of Microbiology
1876 First proof of Germ Theory of Disease with B. anthracis discovery (Robert Koch) 1881 Growth of Bacteria on solid media (Robert Koch) 1882 Outlined Kochs postulates (Robert Koch) 1882 Developed acid-fast Stain (Paul Ehrlich) 1884 Developed Gram Stain (Christian Gram) 1885 First Rabies vaccination (Louis Pasteur)

17 Highlights in the History of Microbiology
1887 Invented Petri Dish (R.J. Petri) 1892 Discovered viruses (Dmitri Iosifovich Ivanovski) 1899 Recognized viral dependence on cells for reproduction (Martinus Beijerinck) 1900 Proved mosquitoes carried the yellow fever agent (Walter Reed) 1910 Discovered cure for syphilis (Paul Ehrlich) 1928 Discovered Penicillin (Alexander Fleming)

18 Highlights in the History of Microbiology
1977 Developed a method to sequence DNA (W. Gilbert & F. Sanger) 1983 Polymerase Chain Reaction invented (Kary Mullis) 1995 First microbial genomic sequence published (H. influenzae) (TIGR)

19 Nomenclature Scientific name (Systematic Name) Binomial System of Nomenclature Genus name + species name Italicized or underlined Genus name is capitalized and may be abbreviated Species name is never abbreviated A genus name may be used alone to indicate a genus group; a species name is never used alone eg: Bacillus subtilis       B. subtilis

20 Nomenclature Common or descriptive names (trivial names)
Names for organisms that may be in common usage, but are not taxonomic names eg: tubercle bacillus         (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) meningococcus (Neiserria meningitidis) Group A streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes)

21 Nomenclature For viruses - common names are used e. g. Polio virus, HIV, Influenza virus For parasites – Either binomial or common names are used e.g. Round worm, Ascaris lumbricoides, A. lumbricoides Dog tape worm, Echinococcus granulosus, E. granulosus



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