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Enter Benito Mussolini Enter Adolph Hitler Targeting the Jews

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Presentation on theme: "Enter Benito Mussolini Enter Adolph Hitler Targeting the Jews"— Presentation transcript:

1 Enter Benito Mussolini Enter Adolph Hitler Targeting the Jews
The Rise Of Fascism Enter Benito Mussolini Enter Adolph Hitler Targeting the Jews

2 The Rise Of Fascism in Italy
Fascism is a political belief that places the success of a nation over its population A country’s central government is supreme and power resides in the hands of one individual (dictator) Business and wealthy elites are valued in this system for their economic worth to the state

3 The Rise Of Fascism in Italy
Italy believes it was shortchanged under the Treaty of Versailles Italy as well as Europe is suffering from an economic depression in the 1920’s –30’s Finally, the Italian people are looking for a return to greatness, power and prestige

4 Enter Benito Mussolini
A troubled, disenchanted young man who avoids military service twice 1909, he begins writing for a socialist newspaper 1921 elected to parliament He is strongly supported by wealthy businessmen and large land owners because he uses war veterans to maintain order The Black Shirts serve as a paramilitary force for Mussolini

5 Enter Benito Mussolini
October 1922, Mussolini is appointed Prime Minster because he can influence the fascists party He becomes dictator of Italy by controlling the press, a partnership with the rich and by promising a return to Rome’s greatness He controls the press, has teachers swear an oath of loyalty to the fascists party and maintains order through intimidation

6 The Roman Question To appease the Catholic Church, Mussolini acknowledged its independent sovereignty and recognized the Vatican City Roman Catholicism would be the Italian religion and Italy would make financial payments to the Church for past discretions

7 The Roman Question He sets up a puppet regime in Albania, colonizes Libya, and invades Ethiopia in 1936 In Ethiopia, Italy commits numerous atrocities Uses gas on civilians Throws guerilla fighters from flying planes Impale and behead resistance fighters Uses concentration camps

8 The Roman Question The Ethiopians will be no match for modern weapons and it is conquered in 1936 Britian and France will not sell materials that will aid the Italians create weapons Both fear that Italy will form an alliance with Germany In 1939 Italy signs the Pact of Steel with Germany


10 Enter Adolph Hitler Adolph Hitler, an unsuccessful painter finds himself in WWI Unemployed after the war, he blames the Treaty of Versailles and Jews for Germany’s fate It is speaking for the German Worker’s Party that he realizes he has a gift for making speeches and drama

11 Enter Adolph Hitler November 1923, Hitler and the Nazi party attempt to over throw the German government in the Beer Hall Putsch Hitler will be imprisoned and write Mein Kampf , which explains his hatred for the Jew and Russia Hitler seizes control of the National Socialist Party the largest political party in Germany

12 Enter Adolph Hitler Hitler jockeys for position among others vying for power and favor from President Hindenburg In 1933, Hitler becomes Chancellor and begins to concentrate power within his office As leader of the Nazi party, Hitler eliminates his opponents during the “Night of the Long Knives”, 1934 Over 1,000 loyalists killed and Hitler’s power is now without question

13 Targeting the Jews 1933, the Reichstag, Germany’s parliament building is set ablaze by an idiotic communist sympathizer Hitler plays on the people’s fear of disorder and seizes control of government through “The Law of Removing Distress of The People of The Reich” Hitler’s SS made sure that parliamentary members voted the right way

14 Enter Adolph Hitler As chancellor Hitler consolidates power his power by ending political parties and unions, censorship, and abolishing parliament Hitler will use his SA (Sturmabteilung) and the SS (Shutzstaffel) to maintain control over critics On the death of President Hindenburg, Hitler becomes “furhrer” or the leader of Germany by creating a law that allows Hitler to assume control of Germany in 1933

15 Enter Adolph Hitler Hitler introduced The Four Year Plan which was to expand Germany, build it’s army and recover its economy It’s economy saw complete employment as it produced war materials and its army grew in relation to its economic growth Germany lacked the industrial capital necessary to achieve complete economic prosperity

16 Hermann Goering Hermann Goering, WWI veteran and man of connections
Will oversee the Four Year Plan and act as intermediary between business and Nazi leadership He will be responsible for rebuilding the Lufftwaffe and the secret police (Gestapo) Shortsighted lacks understanding of air superiority in modern warfare

17 Heinrich Hammer Heinrich Hammer is commander of the SS and Gestapo
He will be the officer in charge of the concentration system and is responsible for 12 million deaths Like all followers of Hitler, men like Himmler sought to consolidate power around themselves

18 Heinrich Hammer The Gestapo’s main purpose was to silence opposition to Hitler in the early 1930’s During WWII main purpose was to round up Jews and to eliminate undesirables in countries conquerored by Germany Gestapo best known for its brutal interrogation methods and use of informants to gather intelligence

19 Joseph Goebbels Joseph Goebbels, heads the Ministry of Propaganda
Produced massive displays of organized rallies to instill loyalty Pushed the “doctrine of Aryan purity” and identified homosexuals, Jews, immigrants and the mentally ill as threats to racial purity

20 Targeting the Jews May 10, 1933, “Burning of The Books”, German college students burn books that are considered “un-German” Most works that are targeted are by Jewish authors This occurs throughout on college campuses throughout Germany

21 Targeting the Jews The Nuremberg Laws, 1935 denied Jews the right to German citizenship, the right to marry non-Jews and the right to work in certain occupations Jews were also prohibited from teaching or attending schools Nazi propaganda services issued id charts that help Germans distinguish Jews and other non-desirables

22 Targeting the Jews Kristallnacht, “Night of the Broken Glass” Nov. 9, 1938 was a planned assault on Jewish peoples in German Synagogues, businesses, cemeteries and homes were looted and vandalized Dozens of Jews were killed and 30,000 men were sent to concentration camps

23 Targeting the Jews

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