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Presentation on theme: "INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL FACTORS LEADING TO CONFEDERATION"— Presentation transcript:


Internal Factors Factors occurring in BNA 1. Repeal of the Corn Laws 2. Political Deadlock 3. The Railway External Factors Factors occurring outside of BNA 1. Manifest Destiny 2. The Fenian Raids 3. End of Reciprocity

3 Internal Factor #1 – Repeal of the Corn Laws
The Corn Laws were British laws which set customs duties on wheat and other cereal grains imported into Britain This ensured that Britain would get their ‘corn’ from British colonies British colonies (Upper & Lower Canada) were being charged far less import duty than grain growers who were not a part of the British Empire In 1846, Britain repealed (cancelled) the Corn Laws and moved towards free trade This caused Canadian farmers to lose their trading terms and price advantage over American producers and the American producers took a larger share of the British market

4 Internal Factor #2 – Political Deadlock
Canada West Liberal-Conservative Party (Tories) John A. Macdonald VS Clear Grits (Reform Party) George Brown Canada East Le Parti Bleu (Conservatives) George-Etienne Cartier VS Le Parti Rouge (Reform Party) Antoine-Aime Dorion

5 Internal Factor #2 – Political Deadlock
Political Deadlock is a situation where progress cannot be made because the parties involved do not agree Canada East (French) vs. Canada West (English) The 2 issues that created this deadlock were: Transportation Representation

6 Internal Factor #2 – Political Deadlock
Transportation Canada West wanted to expand transportation facilities to increase trade and wealth; they were willing to spend government money to do so. Canada East did not want to change their existing way of life; they felt that better links with Canada West would threaten their identity and they resisted attempts to spend tax money on transportation improvements. Representation Canada West supported Representation by Population Canada East wanted to retain equal representation Disagreements about these two issues led to a coalition between MacDonald, Cartier, and Brown Coalition is - a temporary joining together of two or more political parties The determination of the Canadian leaders to change the government was the spark that put Confederation into motion. Representation by Population was agreed upon

7 Internal Factor #3 – The Railway
Canada West, Canada East, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick had their own railway but they were not all connected. The railway was needed to increase trade and move troops more quickly in case of war. The railway would increase communication (quicker movement of mail) and increase business. An INTERCOLONIAL railway would overcome problems: mountains and freezing of St. Lawrence. Due to financial trouble the building came to a halt and politicians dreamed to connect Canada from sea to sea. Confederation was needed to build this railway.

8 Internal Factor #3 – The Railway
Did You Know?

9 External Factor #1 – Manifest Destiny
In the USA, there was a philosophy that stated that the US had a future to expand its borders and eventually take over what is now called Canada. The plan was to annex Canada after the American Civil War. William Seward, the American Secretary of State during the American Civil War, was an annexationist who felt that BNA should become a part of the US. The fear of annexation played a definite role in the achievement of Canadian Confederation and in the shaping of its Constitution. The Fathers of Confederation decided that Canada should have a stronger federal government than the one south of the border (US).

10 External Factor #2 – The Fenian Raids
The Fenians were members of a secret society, the Fenian Brotherhood, which was formed by Irish-Americans around 1858. Their aim was to end English rule in Ireland and free Canada from Britain. About 10,000 Fenians fought in the American Civil War and when the war ended they were eager to invade the British colonies of BNA. There were many instances when the Fenians tried to invade the British colonies in BNA.

11 External Factor #2 – The Fenian Raids
Examples of Fenian Raids: 1. April 1866 – New Brunswick 2. June 1-2, 1866 – Canada West 3. June 7, 1866 – Canada East These raids caused widespread alarm throughout BNA, even though the Fenians were forced to retreat by BNA militiamen. These raids played a part in convincing the people of BNA of the need for Confederation.

12 External Factor #2 – The Fenian Raids
"We are the Fenian Brotherhood, skilled in the arts of war,
And we're going to fight for Ireland, the land we adore,
Many battles we have won, along with the boys in blue,
And we'll go and capture Canada, for we've nothing else to do.” 
-Fenian soldier's song Your opinion: How do you think the residents of BNA felt when they heard the words to this song?

13 External Factor #3 – End of Reciprocity
The Reciprocity Treaty of 1854 allowed for a large degree of free trade between the US and BNA. Many goods, especially agricultural products could be imported free of customs duties. American fishermen were allowed to fish in the Atlantic coastal waters of BNA and colonial fishermen were allowed the same rights further south. This treaty increased trade between BNA and the US and was very profitable for the Maritime colonies.

14 External Factor #3 – End of Reciprocity
In 1866, the US government cancelled this treaty at the same time it passed the Annexation Bill. This resulted in sudden loss of favourable trading terms for the BNA colonies with the US. Therefore, it was decided that among the BNA colonies, there would be free trade. This in turn, pushed the colonies closer together; increasing the need for Confederation.


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