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Chapter 1 Introduction to Chemistry

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1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Chemistry

2 Section 1.1 Chemistry OBJECTIVES:
Define chemistry and differentiate among it’s traditional divisions.

3 Section 1.1 Chemistry OBJECTIVES:
List several reasons to study chemistry.

4 What is Chemistry? The study of “matter”, its composition, properties, and the changes it undergoes. Everyday life? Applied Chemistry- is using chemistry to attain certain goals, in fields like medicine, agriculture, and manufacturing Pure chemistry- gathers knowledge for the sake of knowledge

5 5 Major Areas of Chemistry
Analytical Chemistry- concerned with the composition of substances. Inorganic Chemistry- primarily deals with substances without carbon Organic Chemistry- essentially all substances containing carbon Biochemistry- Chemistry of living things Physical Chemistry- describes the behavior of chemicals (ex. stretching)

6 Chemistry is central to modern science, and to almost all human endeavors. important to all sciences - biology, geology, physics, engineers, etc. a natural science. a language with its own vocabulary. a way of thinking.

7 Why Study Chemistry? everyone and everything around us involves chemistry What in the world isn’t Chemistry? helps you make choices possible career for your future used to attain a specific goal Do you remember “pure” and “applied” chemistry?

8 Section 1.2 Chemistry Far and Wide
OBJECTIVES: Summarize ways in which chemistry affects your daily life.

9 Section 1.2 Chemistry Far and Wide
OBJECTIVES: Describe the impact of chemistry on various fields of science.

10 Chemistry Far and Wide Materials- perfume, steel, ceramics, plastics, rubber, paints, nonstick cooking utensils, polyester fibers Energy- greater demands conserve it, or produce more fossil fuels, solar, batteries, nuclear (don’t forget pollution!)

11 Chemistry Far and Wide Medicine and Biotechnology-
vitamin C, penicillin, aspirin materials for artery transplants and hipbones Human Genome Project bacteria producing insulin cloning

12 Chemistry Far and Wide Agriculture- world’s food supply
plant growth hormones ways to protect crops disease resistant plants The Environment- both risks and benefits involved in discoveries carbon dioxide, ozone, warming

13 Chemistry Far and Wide Astronomy and Space Exploration-
composition of the planets analyze moon rocks planet atmospheres life on other planets?

14 Section 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist
OBJECTIVES: Describe the steps involved in the scientific method.

15 Section 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist
OBJECTIVES: Distinguish between a theory and a scientific law.

16 The Scientific Method A logical approach to solving problems or answering questions. Starts with observation- noting and recording facts hypothesis- an educated guess as to the cause of the problem, or a proposed explanation

17 Scientific Method “controlled” experiment- designed to test the hypothesis only two possible answers hypothesis is right hypothesis is wrong Generates data observations from experiments. Modify hypothesis - repeat the cycle

18 Cycle repeats many times. The hypothesis gets more and more certain.
Becomes a theory A thoroughly tested model that explains why things behave a certain way. Observations Hypothesis Experiment

19 Theory can never be proven- due to new information
Useful because they predict behavior Help us form mental pictures of processes (models) Observations Hypothesis Experiment

20 Another outcome is that certain behavior is repeated many times
Scientific Law is developed (math?) Describes how things behave Law- tells how Theory- tells why Observations Hypothesis Experiment

21 Law Modify Observations Theory (Model) Hypothesis Experiment
Prediction Modify Experiment Experiment Law

22 Section 1.4 How to Study Chemistry
OBJECTIVES: Explain why learning chemistry requires daily effort.

23 Section 1.4 How to Study Chemistry
OBJECTIVES: Describe the importance of writing in the study of chemistry.

24 How to Study Chemistry Understanding and Applying Concepts
requires effort on your part read materials carefully take thorough notes you can use study often and effectively quiet, well-lit, remove distractions

25 How to Study Chemistry Understanding and Applying Concepts
chemistry has a language of it’s own, so learn the vocabulary look around you, and make the connection to the level of atoms and molecules

26 How to Study Chemistry Using Your Textbook name chemical compounds
write chemical formulas interpret graphs techniques to solve problems Use your Teacher and Textbook!

27 How to Study Chemistry Using Your Textbook take good notes
solve Practice Problems read, keeping objectives in mind use the Chem ASAP! CD-ROM Student Study Guide (p. 24) section summaries; Key Terms

28 How to Study Chemistry On Your Own go beyond the textbook
make flashcards reread and rewrite notes quiz yourself and classmates form a study group ASK, ASK, and ASK

29 How to Study Chemistry Tests and Quizzes cramming never a good idea
set aside a certain amount of time every day get enough rest daily; nutrition read tests carefully / thoroughly do easy problems first show work, and evaluate answer

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