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Amber Gilewski Tompkins Cortland Community College

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1 Amber Gilewski Tompkins Cortland Community College
Chapter 2 An Integrative Approach to Psychopathology Amber Gilewski Tompkins Cortland Community College

2 One-Dimensional vs. Multidimensional Models
One-Dimensional Models Explain behavior in terms of a single cause Could mean a paradigm, school, or conceptual approach Tendency to ignore information from other areas

3 One-Dimensional vs. Multidimensional Models
Interdisciplinary, eclectic, and integrative “System” of influences that cause and maintain suffering Draws upon information from several sources

4 Genetic Contributions to Psychopathology
Nature of Genes Genes do not dictate behavioral outcomes Genes create a predisposition or likelihood Development and behavior is often polygenic Interaction between genetic factors & environment (i.e. nature and nurture) New developments in study of genes/behavior Less than 50% is genetic contribution

5 The Interaction of Genetic & Environmental Effects
The Diathesis-Stress Model Examples: blood-injury-injection phobia, alcoholism Reciprocal Gene-Environment Model Examples: Depression, sensation-seeking Non-Genomic Inheritance of Behavior Genes are not the whole story Environmental influences may override genetics

6 Neuroscience Contributions to Psychopathology
The Field of Neuroscience The role of the nervous system in disease and behavior The Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain and spinal cord -processes information received from sense organs

7 Neurons The Neuron Soma – Cell body
Dendrites – Branches that receive messages from other neurons Axon – Trunk of neuron that sends messages to other neurons Axon terminals (terminal buttons)– Buds at end of axon from which chemical messages are sent Synapses – Small gaps that separate neurons

8 The Structure of the Brain
Two Main Parts Brainstem - automatic functions Forebrain – more advanced systems Main Divisions Hindbrain – medulla, pons, cerebellum Midbrain – reticular activating system Diencephalon – transmits info to forebrain Teleencephalon – base of forebrain, limbic system

9 The Structure of the Brain
Hindbrain Medulla – Heart rate, blood pressure, respiration Pons – Regulates sleep stages Cerebellum – Involved in physical coordination Midbrain Coordinates movement with sensory input Contains parts of the reticular activating system (RAS)

10 The Structure of the Brain
Forebrain (Cerebral Cortex) Most sensory, emotional, and cognitive processing 2 specialized hemispheres – left & right

11 Major Structures of the Brain
Fig. 2.6b2, p. 47

12 Lobes of Cerebral Cortex
The 4 Lobes Lobes of Cerebral Cortex Frontal – Thinking and reasoning abilities, memory Parietal – Touch recognition Occipital – Integrates visual input Temporal – Recognition of sights and sounds, long-term memory storage

13 Neurotransmitters & The Brain
Brain circuits – pathways of neurotransmitters Drug therapies – increase or decrease flow of neurotransmitters Agonists - mimic neurotransmitters Antagonists - act against/block neurotransmitters Inverse agonists -like agonists, but opposite effect Most drugs are either agonistic or antagonistic

14 Main Types of Neurotransmitters
Serotonin (5HT) – affects mood, behavior, thought processes Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) – inhibits behavior and emotions, esp. anxiety Norepinephrine – endocrine system, contributes to mood and arousal Dopamine – controls voluntary movements, related to schizophrenia & Parkinson’s

15 Manipulating Serotonin in the Brain
Fig. 2.11, p. 52

16 Mental Illness in Social Context
How does the context of the situation influence our interpretations about mental illness? What does this story say about the stigma of mental illness? What does it say about the potential dangers of one-dimensional models? Can you come up with other behaviors that would have been misinterpreted in this situation?

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