2 Iconoclastic Conflict Related to Church-State conflict ADLatourette pagesEmperors (Leo etc.) against icons in worshipClergy, particularly Greek clergy, were for icons in worship, also women in favor of…Icons a popular way of instructing the illiterate but became objects of veneration2nd commandment was against images…Pro-icons – sense of historical faithAgainst icons (iconoclasts) neo-Platonist, Origenist, Christianity stood outside history…7th Ecumenical council in 787 AD approved icons but regulated how they should be honored… finally resolved in 843ADEastern Church – no sculpted or 3D images, just 2D paintings
3 Allegorical Interpretation Origen – three levels of Scripture interpretation:Common / Historical – surface meaning for even the ‘simple-minded’Soul of Scripture – which edifies those that perceive itHidden Meaning – lying beneath the surface of difficult or morally / intellectually repugnant passages and which can be exposed by allegory ‘for the perfect’.Allegory helps perfect a person in Christ….Related to typology – OT is a ‘type’ and NT the anti- typeCommonly used in the Middle Ages
4 Collapse Of The Roman Empire Latourette pagesEnemies of Roman Empire In the North & West – Germanic tribes, Huns, Goths, Visigoths etc476 AD end of the Western EmpireEnemies In the South and East – IslamCorruption in the State and in the ChurchOver-identification of Christianity with Greco-Roman thought and cultureYet also saw the conversion of Clovis, King of the Franks and of many Germanic tribes.The Great Recession – many formerly Christian lands became Muslim or pagan.
5 The Rise Of The Papacy Latourette pages 336-341 Rome rises to first place among the five main bishops – Jerusalem, Antioch, Constantinople, Rome and AlexandriaAs Rome and the Western Empire is abandoned by the Emperor and invaded by the Germanic tribes the Pope is the only societal leaderGregory the Great stabilizes Rome and sets the model for the papacyRoman practical and administrative skill gave it and edge over the more ‘spiritually-minded’ patriarchatesBold theological claims to power and legitimacy and to authority over the life of the believer
6 Monasticism -1 Latourette p. 331-336 Monks and nuns and friars were an important part of medieval lifeDesert Fathers – Anthony the Great, Pachomius etc – known as Eremitic monasteries, unstructured, often solitaryCassiodorus – learning, manuscripts, structure introduced – Cenobitic monasteries with an abbot in chargeIreland – monasticism was the dominant expression of Christianity, scholarly copied many manuscriptsIrish monks travelled all over Europe, and even to Iceland and were powerful evangelistsThe Irish annoyed the established Church in Europe as they were wanderers and did not ‘fit in’
7 Monasticism - 2Benedict of Nursia – Rule of Benedict, cenobitic (structured, communal) monasticism is definedHead was an Abbot (from Abba as in father) and various officersCommunity was to be self-supportingPrayer, work and studyOrderly lifestyle amidst chaos, widely admired24 hrs a day was planned in some way (though not overly difficult or harsh).Idleness was an enemy of the soulMonks were ‘kept from contact with the world’
8 The East-West Split - 1Tensions built between the Eastern & Western sections of the Roman Empire for centuries over questions of theology, church structure and administration and the role of the Bishop of Rome.1014 AD the Roman Catholic Church (known then as the Western or Roman Church) added the words ‘and the Son’ to the Nicene Creed (in the section about the Holy Spirit) without consulting the Eastern Church (Bishop of Constantinople).In 1054 AD the two main Bishops (Rome and Constantinople) excommunicated each other
9 The East-West Split - 2After the split the Catholic church became split into the Roman catholic Church (based out of Rome) and the Orthodox Church (based out of Constantinople)The Orthodox Church continues today as the Greek Orthodox, Russian orthodox etc.The Orthodox churches are regional and are all in communion with one another – that is a Greek Orthodox is welcome in a Russian Orthodox Church etc.There were various attempts at reconciliation but none was truly successful.The Nicene Creed issue and the Roman Catholic claims about the papacy stand in the way.
10 The East-West Split - 3The Eastern Church (Constantinople) has some unique doctrines such as chrismation (like confirmation but involves anointing)Veneration (but not worship) of iconsEmphasizes the divinity of JesusEmphasizes our participation in the nature of God, especially via contemplationLikeness to God is the aim ( not just salvation)Theosis – becoming like GodThree Stages: Purification, Illumination, Theosis
11 The Crusades - 1 Latourette – p. 407-414 Islam – 622 AD Mohammed moves to MeccaBy most of North Africa and the Middle East subdued under Islam including the Nestorian and Arian ChristiansConquered Spain in the 600s and 700s and threatened ConstantinopleIn 1096 there was a call from Constantinople for help against the Seljuk Turks.Forgiveness of sins and eternal life promised to those who took part
12 The Crusades - 21096 – First Crusade eventually a success, captures Jerusalem1144 – Second Crusade organized after the fall of Edessa, a poorly organized failure1187 – well organized Muslim armies under Saladin destroy the Crusaders1189 – Third crusade, very costly, recaptures AcreFourth Crusade , plundered Constantinople for gain (sponsored by merchants from the city of Venice)Made matters worse between Roman catholic & Orthodox ChristiansVarious other Crusades – also generally failedNeed BOTH piety and logistics for success!
13 IndulgencesStarted off as applying ‘the merit of the saints’ to sins in this life with genuine repentance requiredRemission of the good works required of penitent sinners in satisfaction for their offenses.Then became able to be ‘earned’ by participating in Crusades – and eventually by paying moneyEventually indulgences applied to souls in purgatory (but not Hell) in order to shorten their stay there.Plenary indulgences – remission of all the temporal penalties for sinsEventually became abused as a ‘license to sin’ and led to the Reformation
14 The MongolsGenghis Khan (Universal Emperor) 12th and 13th centuries (Latourette p )Mongols – largest land empire ever! Sweep down from Mongolia, conquer Russia, China, Central Asia, Arabia and even reach as far as Vienna, Austria in Europe. Even threaten JapanStopped just outside NazarethInfluence in India lasted until the 19th centuryRuined large tracts of central Asia to this day!Was not hostile to Christianity, Christian faith flourished in China at this time1368 break up of Mongol Empire, Ming Dynasty, takes over, anti-foreign, Christianity completely eradicated from China
15 The PlagueAround 1350 Bubonic Plague reduced the population of Europe by a third and that of England by a halfContinued on and off for hundreds of yearsUnable to resist the rise of Turkish and Muslim armiesDecimated the missionary orders – the Franciscans and the DominicansMonasteries forced to accept inferior candidatesLabor is short supply – spelled the end of serfdom and of feudalismPlague lead to widespread questioning of the faith for many lay people
16 The Rise of Literacy Rediscovery of Greek bible manuscripts Translation of the Scriptures into the vernacularIncreased art, education, especially with the RenaissanceThe invention of the printing pressRelative prosperity meant many more people could be educated
17 The Long Decline From 500 to 950 the Church went into serious decline From 950 to 1350 it saw some growth and resurgence through monasticism and by pushing Islam backFrom 1350 to 1500 it went into even deeper decline and by 1350 was far, far, worse off than it had been in 500 AD.The mixture of Christian Church + Roman State + Greek Culture was toxic to the Church!The Church needs to be independent of the State and the CultureChurch was now doctrinally astray and materially corrupt – and God was going to change it!