Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Early Intervention"— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction to Early Intervention What are disabilities and why do we care?What is Early Intervention?
2 What I hope you get out of the lesson Definitions of disabilityUse proper etiquette and person-first languageIdentify internal and External Risk Factors for DisabilityDefine Early Intervention ServicesState why these services are importantIn this lesson, we will:Come up with our own definitions of disabilityLearn proper etiquette and person-first languageState some internal and external risk factors for disabilityDefine and state the importance of early intervention
3 What is disability? Encarta: 1. restricted capability to perform particular activities: an inability to perform some or all of the tasks of daily life 2. medical condition restricting activities: a medically diagnosed condition that makes it difficult to engage in the activities of daily life 3. payment to person with inability: a sum of money paid to somebody, usually on a monthly basis, by a government agency or insurance company because he or she is unable to work 4. legal disqualifier: something that causes somebody to be regarded in law as ineligible to perform a specific transactionAccording to Encarta, a disability is:restricted capability to perform particular activities: an inability to perform some or all of the tasks of daily life 2. medical condition restricting activities: a medically diagnosed condition that makes it difficult to engage in the activities of daily life 3. payment to person with inability: a sum of money paid to somebody, usually on a monthly basis, by a government agency or insurance company because he or she is unable to work 4. legal disqualifier: something that causes somebody to be regarded in law as ineligible to perform a specific transaction
4 What is a Disability? Federal Definitions of Disability SOOOO…WHAT IS A DISABILITY?Impairment?Difference?Hindrance?Culture?Barrier?The law has several different definitions of disability. Let’s look at this document online:The DD Act states that it’s a mental or physical impairment that reflects the need for special servicesADA (1990) states that it’s an impairment that limits one or more major life activities, but that it cannot be applied to things such as pedophilia, kleptomania, or substance abuseThe Individuals With Disabilities Education Act – 14 categories from Mental Retardation to Orthopaedic Impairments, but also includes provisions for those considered at risk for “developmental delays”Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 – does not include infectious disease or alcoholismLongshore and Harbor Workers’ compensation Act – inability to earn wages because of impairmentUS Housing act of 1937 – disability must be long-continued and indefinite durationSo how shall we define disability?ImpairmentDifferenceHindranceCulturally Relevant?Barrier or an Opportunity?Let’s discuss this for about 10 minutes and come up with our own definition.
5 The Effects of a Label We make associations based upon our experiences Person First LanguagePut the person before the disabilityIncorrect: “Autistic Child”, “CP Kid”Correct: “Child with Autism”, “Person with CP”Derogatory terms are NEVER acceptable in this course!Ok, so we’ve defined it and we’ve talked about how it is caused – now, what is the fallout of having a label?As we know, language can make or break someone.We make associations based on our experiences. Take the work by Steve Hayes, Dermot Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne Barnes-Holmes, and othersWhen categories are reinforced, children tend to keep those associationsE.g. Soda – good; water – badThere is some evidence that the way that we talk about people and our opinions of them are shaped by the language and behavior of othersTherefore, we need to be sure that we are always painting children in a positive light to othersOne way to do this is through Person-first languagePut the person before the disabilityIncorrect: “Autistic Child”, “CP Kid”Correct: “Child with Autism”, “Person with CP”Derogatory terms are NEVER acceptable in this course!
6 Causation Sociocultural Biomedical Economic Poor nutrition/medical careFewer opportunities for learningBiomedicalChromosomalMetabolicBrain diseaseBehavioral/ EnvironmentalMaternal infectionDrug/alcohol abusePostnatal infectionTraumaUnknown CausesNow that we have defined disability, now we can talk about what might put a person at risk (if that is the appropriate term) for disabilitySocioculturalEconomic – kids with less opportunity may have less resources for learningPoor nutrition/medical care – prenatal, well-baby checkupsFewer opportunities for learning – this is why Head Start was createdBiomedicalChromosomal – Down SyndromeMetabolic - PKUBrain disease – Muscular DystrophyBehavioral/ EnvironmentalMaternal infection – Encephalitis, Maternal RubellaDrug/alcohol abuse – Fetal Alcohol SyndromePostnatal infection - RSVTrauma – e.g., Car AccidentsUnknown Causes – the majority of disabilities in children are of unknown origin (e.g., autism)
7 Why do we intervene? Why early? Possibility of increasing gapsMatthew EffectMore likely to engage in risky sexual behaviorViolence and AbuseMore likely to be an offenderEarning potential and povertyRegardless of how they are caused, it is important to intervene early.Why do we intervene, and why so early?Well, we know that kids with disabilities tend to fall further behind their peers without intervention and may even lose the skills that they already haveMorgan, Farkas, & Hibel (2008) – documentation that kids with poor literacy skills in early childhood tend to get worse while those with better skills tend to get betterSo what are the effects?Risky sexual behaviorStenjhem, 2005 – 32-55% of offenders in JJ have some sort of disabilityEarning Potential and PovertyA study conducted by CDS in 2007 reported that adults in DE with intellectual and cognitive disabilities in DE were very likely to live below the poverty line (University of Delaware Center for Disabilities Studies, 2007)Therefore, not intervening may have not only personal, but societal, consequences
8 Common goals of Early Intervention Assisting children in living in and adapting to various environmental settingsHomeSchoolPlaygroundServices should involve familiesDecrease financial costs of care and servicesImprove quality of life and maximize potential – INDEPENDENCEAssisting children in living in and adapting to various environmental settingsHomeSchoolPlaygroundServices should involve familiesDecrease financial costs of care and servicesImprove quality of life and maximize potential – INDEPENDENCE
9 What types of services are provided Need to be family-based interventionsFamily education and home visitsSpecialized instructionSpeech and LanguageOT/PTPsychologyService coordinationMedical services for diagnosis and evaluationSocial WorkHealth servicesTransportationGoal – prevention of disabling conditionsInterventions are mutidisciplinary and focus on the family’s needs, strengths, and wishesfamilies are the decision makers – once you move to part B, it tends to be more student centeredthe WHOLE family is involved including siblingsrespect the level of family involvementIt is important to be culturally sensitive as wellmust be a collaborative model as opposed to a directive and training modelSome examples of what services a family might getFamily education and home visitsSpecialized instructionSpeech and LanguageOT/PTPsychologyService coordinationMedical services for diagnosis and evaluationSocial WorkHealth servicesTransportation
10 ReferencesAllen, K. E., & Chowdery, G. E. (2009). The exceptional child: Inclusion in early childhood education (6th ed.). Clifton Park, NY: Thomson Delmar.Campbell, F. A., Wasik, B. H., Pungello, E., Burchinal, M., Barbarin, O., Kainz, K., & Sparling, J. (2008). The effects of early educational intervention on young adult outcomes: A replication study. Early Childhood Research Quarterly.23,Christle, C. A., Nelson, C. M., & Jolivette, K. (2002). Prevention of antisocial and violent behavior in youth: a review of the literature.Federal statutory definitions of disability Retrieved 9/3/2009, 2009, fromHardman, M. L., Drew, C. J., & Egan, M. W. (2005). Human exceptionality: School, community, and family (8th ed.). New York: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.Hayes, S. C., Fox, E., Gifford, E. V., Wilson, K. G., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Healy, O. (2001). Derived relational responding as learned behavior. In S. C. Hayes, D. Barnes-Holmes & B. Roche (Eds.), Relational frame theory: A post-skinnerian account of human language and cognition (). New York: Kluwer Academic.Smeets, P. M., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2003). Children's emergent preferences for soft drinks: Stimulus equivalence and transfer. Journal of Economic Psychology, 24,Stenhjem, P. (2005). Youth With Disabilities in the Juvenile Justice System: Prevention and Intervention Strategies [Electronic Version]. Retrieved February 10, 2009, fromUniversity of Delaware Center for Disabilities Studies. (2007). Delaware Health Status Report for Persons with Disabilities. Newark, DE: Division of Developmental Disabilities Services Delaware Health and Social Services.The next time we come together, we will talk a little about the history of special education and the legal foundations of early intervention.Here are some more references, beyond those in your textbook and course readings, that I used to create this presentation.