Presentation on theme: "3/25/2017 Pollution Prevention - Fundamentals and Practice Spring Semester - 2013 Sidney Innerebner, PhD, PE, CWP Indigo Water Group, LLC Littleton, CO."— Presentation transcript:
1 3/25/2017Pollution Prevention - Fundamentals and Practice Spring SemesterSidney Innerebner, PhD, PE, CWPIndigo Water Group, LLCLittleton, CO
2 Preliminaries Examples – from my background and perspective Textbook - noneClass StructureGuest LecturersGrading SystemQuizzesBuddy System!Snow DaysField TripsAssignments / Web Site –Office HoursSOA ProjectSeating ChartExamples – from my background and perspective
3 Objective of the Course Reorient student’s outlook to incorporate society’s interest in environmental quality and sustainability into engineering educationEncourage a stronger environmental ethic among engineering studentsUnderstand environmental processes and their impacts.
4 “We have learned the inherent limitations of treating and burning wastes. A problem solved in one part of the environment may become a new problem in another part.We must curtail pollution closer to its origin so that it is not transferred from place to place.”William Reillyformer U.S. EPA Administrator1990
5 Major Environmental Laws 1955 – Clean Air Act (CAA)1969 – NEPA, National Environmental Policy Act1972 – Clean Water Act (CWA)1974 – Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)1975 – HMTA, Hazardous Materials Transportation Act1976 – RCRA, Resource Conservation and Recovery ActTSCA, Toxic Substances Control Act1980 – CERCLA, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act1984 – EPCRA, Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act1990 – Oil Pollution Act
6 3/25/2017Rule of Thumb 1Your professional success rests on What you know, AND Who you knowBoth are essential and equally important
7 What is Pollution Prevention? Reducing or eliminating toxic materialsReplacing a material in the production lineReformulating the productInstalling new or modifying existing process equipmentClosed loop (on-site) recyclingDeveloping new technology that helps others implement P2Involves holistic approach
8 What P2 is NOT? End of pipe treatment Incineration or disposal Burning waste for energy recoveryTransferring waste from one medium to anotherIncorporation of waste into products or by- products
10 Recycling vs. P2EPA didn’t used to consider recycling or reprocessing as Pollution PreventionMany States do include recycling and reuse in their definition of P2In this course, a broader version of P2 that includes recycling and reuse of materials will be followedResource recovery not waste disposal!
11 ShetkaStone All Paper Recycling based in Minnesota All types of recycled paper accepted, plants, and cloth fibersPaper products account for 40% of solid waste in U.S.Products produced include:Shetkastone (countertops, benches, molding)Ceiling TilesDecorative Screens100% sustainable life cycleCost somewhere between Corian and Granite
12 Shetkastone A ton of paper makes 400 sf of material 1.5 inches thick Propriety process described as:Segregate by colorShredding and pulpingAddition of water based polymersPressing and curingPolishUses hydrogen bondingNo toxic glues or formaldehyde30+ year life expectancy
13 Phosphorus U.S. has 50 to 100 year supply U.S. supplies ~45% of world supplyProduced 29 million tons in 2007Critical for farmingMost phosphorus is single useLost in run-offDischarged to WWTP
15 Struvite Struvite is magnesium ammonium phosphate – MgNH4PO4●6H2O Created during anaerobic wastewater treatmentA nuisance and a waste!!!Landfill, incinerate, or land applyCan be recovered and sold as fertilizer additive
16 P2 Rules of Thumb - Bishop 3/25/2017P2 Rules of Thumb - BishopPrevent creation of the wasteMinimize handling of toxinsOperate at higher efficiencyImprove product qualityAbsorb past wastes into current operations
17 What is Waste? Legally defined in RCRA Solid product left over at the end of a process or actionSolid waste means any garbage, refuse, sludge, from a waste treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, from a waste treatment plant or air pollution control facility and other discarded material, including solid, liquid, semi-solid, or contained gaseous materials resulting from industrial, commercial, mining and agricultural activities and from community activities.GET SOME GOOD DEFINITIONS FROM ALLEN DAVID COURSE NOTES!!
20 Avoiding Waste Creation 3/25/2017Avoiding Waste CreationConvert byproduct streams back to raw materialsSelect raw materials that generate valued byproductsDecrease energy inputUpdate the material balance
21 Byproducts to Raw Materials Dezinc galvanized steelProduce caustic from soda ash: NaOH from Na2CO3
22 Dezinc Galvanized Steel 3/25/2017Dezinc Galvanized SteelZn0(s) + 2NaOH(liq) + ½ O2 -->Na2O*ZnO(aq) + H2O(g)Na2O*ZnO(aq) + H2O(g) + power --> Zn0 + 2NaOH (liq) + ½ O2Zinc is stripped from steel using sodium hydroxide. End product is sodium zincate.
23 Electrowinning / Refining 3/25/2017Electrowinning / RefiningSodium zincate – regenerate causticWhen an electrowinning unit is in operation, the electrical potential applied to the electrodes causes dissolved metals and other positively charged ions to migrate toward and plate onto the cathodes. As metals deposit on the cathodes, the metal buildup decreases the deposition rate. When the metal deposition rate is no longer sufficient, cathodes are removed from the electrolytic cell for on-site or off-site metal recycling.
25 Rule of Thumb 2One of the best ways to meet the best and brightest in your field is to VOLUNTEERModerate a session at a conferenceJoin a committeeCollect business cards
26 Avoiding Waste Creation 3/25/2017Avoiding Waste CreationConvert byproduct streams back to raw materialsSelect raw materials that generate valued byproductsDecrease energy inputUpdate the material balance
27 Caustic from Soda Ash CaO(s) + H2O Ca(OH)2 + heat 3/25/2017Caustic from Soda AshCaO(s) + H2O Ca(OH)2 + heatNa2CO3 (aq) + Ca(OH)2 (s) 2NaOH (aq) + CaCO3 (s)CaCO3 (s) + H2O + heat Ca(OH)2 (s) + CO2 (g)Sodium hydroxide aka caustic soda typically costs more than Sodium carbonate aka soda ash. CaO is lime. Ca(OH)2 is hydrated or “slaked” lime.At the same price, caustic has some advantages over soda ash. For one, since caustic is produced all over the US, it enjoys cheaper freight costs than soda ash, which is produced almost exclusively in Green River, Wyo. Since caustic is more soluble in water it can be more easily stored and transported in liquid form. Also, caustic is a stronger base with greater neutralizing capabilities.
28 Raw Materials Selection 3/25/2017Raw Materials SelectionHCl from NaCl vs KCl using sulfuric acidNeutralize with Mg(OH)2 rather than Ca(OH)2CaSO4 is water soluble
29 Common Salt vs Potash The Mannheim Furnace 2NaCl + H2SO4 + heat -->Na2SO4 (s) + 2HCl (gas)2KCl + H2SO4 + heat -->K2SO4 (s) + 2HCl (gas)Sodium sulfate is mainly used for the manufacture of detergents and in the Kraft process of paper pulping. About two-thirds of the world's production is from mirabilite, the natural mineral form of the decahydrate, and the remainder from by-products of chemical processes such as hydrochloric acid production.The principal use of potassium sulfate is as a fertilizer. The crude salt is also used occasionally in the manufacture of glass.
30 Mechanical rakes rotate and push H2SO4 and KCl to center of furnace In the process, sulphuric acid reacts with potassium chloride producing potassium sulphate and a 33% hydrochloric acid solution obtained through absorption. Combustion gases, obtained as intermediate products, are used to heat up the combustion air. Producing sulphate that is free of sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid requires equivalent amounts of acid and salt. The salt is dosaged by means of a belt weigher, the quantity of acid is measured by flow measurement and controlled by an electropneumatic positioner. Based on raw material analyses, the quantity ratio of the materials is then controlled by a human operator. The reaction between sulphuric acid and potassium chloride requires a long reaction time and a high temperature. This is achieved in a muffle furnace with a body of hearth which is heated with oil burners to 550…600°C.The air volume/oil ratio is kept constant. The first stage of the reaction produces acidic potassium sulphate, or potassium hydrogen sulphate, which then reacts with potassium chloride during the second stage to generate the end product, potassium sulphate. Figure 36 shows the Mannheim furnace, the most important part of the production process.According to Kemira as well as Pihkala & Salminen , the sulphuric acid content (H2SO4) and potassium chloride content (KCl) are used as input variables. These are added to the process at maximum feed rate, based on analysis results. Oil consumption is used as an indirect quality and quantity indicator. Mechanical rakes rotate in the muffle furnace, pushing the sulphuric acid and potassium chloride to the centre of the furnace and the produced sulphate to the outer edge. The hot, acidic, and partly caked potassium sulphate is transferred from the drop chute to a cooling and pulverizing drum where it is cooled with a water jacket. A conveyor belt then takes the ground material to subsequent treatment. Appendix 9 shows a diagram of potassium sulphate process, with the locations of field devices indicated.The final product is neutralized and of homogeneous quality. From the cooling drum the sulphate is screened, crushed, and taken to storage by a screw conveyor. The gas released in the process is used to manufacture hydrochloric acid.Furnace at 550 – 600 oCMechanical rakes rotate and push H2SO4 and KCl to center of furnaceProduced sulfate moves to outer edgeHot, acidic, partly caked KSO4 goes from drop chute to pulverizing drumGas released in process is used to manufacture hydrochloric acid
31 Gypsum vs Fertilizer Ca(OH)2 + H2SO4 --> CaSO4.2H2O (s) 3/25/2017Gypsum vs FertilizerCa(OH)2 + H2SO4 -->CaSO4.2H2O (s)Mg(OH)2 + H2SO4 -->MgSO4 (s) + 2H2OMgSo4 is soluble – CaSo4 is notThe main sources of calcium sulfate are naturally occurring gypsum and anhydrite which occur at many locations worldwide as evaporites. These may be extracted by open-cast quarrying or by deep mining. World production of natural gypsum is around 127 million tonnes per annum.In addition to natural sources, calcium sulfate is produced as a by-product in a number of processes:In flue gas desulfurization, exhaust gases from fossil-fuel-burning power stations and other processes (e.g. cement manufacture) are scrubbed to reduce their sulfur oxide content, by injecting finely ground limestone or lime. This produces an impure calcium sulfite, which oxidizes on storage to calcium sulfate.In the production of phosphoric acid from phosphate rock, calcium phosphate is treated with sulfuric acid and calcium sulfate precipitates.In the production of hydrogen fluoride, calcium fluoride is treated with sulfuric acid, precipitating calcium sulfate.In the refining of zinc, solutions of zinc sulfate are treated with lime to co-precipitate heavy metals such as barium.Calcium sulfate can also be recovered and re-used from scrap drywall at construction sites.In agriculture and gardening, magnesium sulfate is used to correct magnesium deficiency in soil, since magnesium is an essential element in the chlorophyll molecule. It is most commonly applied to potted plants, or to magnesium-hungry crops, such as potatoes, roses, tomatoes, peppers and cannabis. The advantage of magnesium sulfate over other magnesium soil amendments (such as dolomitic lime) is its high solubility.
34 Avoiding Waste Creation 3/25/2017Avoiding Waste CreationConvert byproduct streams back to raw materialsSelect raw materials that generate valued byproductsDecrease energy inputUpdate the material balance
35 Decrease Energy Input Use only what you need Variable frequency drivesHigh efficiency motorsMotion sensors for lightsSave energy and money!Recover waste heat and use elsewhereFlash smelting of sulfidesProduction of cement
36 3/25/2017 Flash versus reverb furnace --- huge energy savings Reverb furnace: Furnace used for smelting, refining, or melting in which the fuel is not in direct contact with the contents but heats it by a flame blown over it from another chamber. Such furnaces are used in copper, tin, and nickel production, in the production of certain concretes and cements, and in aluminum recycling. In steelmaking, this process (now largely obsolete) is called the open-hearth process. The heat passes over the hearth and then radiates back (reverberates) onto the contents. The roof is arched, with the highest point over the firebox. It slopes downward toward a bridge of flues that deflects the flame so that it reverberates.Flash smelting (Finnish: Liekkisulatus) is a smelting process for sulfur-containing ores  including chalcopyrite. The process was developed by Outokumpu in Finland and first applied at the Harjavalta plant in 1949 for smelting copper ore. It has also been adapted for nickel and lead production.The process uses the autogenic principle by using the energy contained in the sulfur and iron for melting the ore. In the process dried and powdered ore is discharged from a nozzle into a fluidized bed reactor fed with oxygen. The reduced metal melts, and drops to the bottom of a settling chamber. The flotation produces a large effective surface area of fine-grained concentrate particles. The process makes smelting more energy efficient and environmentally friendly. Sulfur is released mainly in its solid form, thus reducing atmospheric pollution. The process is today used for 50% of the world’s primary copper production. The other 50% is mainly produced from oxide ores, where the process cannot be applied.
44 P2 Rules of Thumb - Bishop 3/25/2017P2 Rules of Thumb - BishopPrevent creation of the wasteMinimize handling of toxinsOperate at higher efficiencyImprove product qualityAbsorb past wastes into current operations
45 Hussey Seating Company Goal: reduce VOCs and HAPsTwo process changesSwitch to automated UV cured coating system for bleachersSwitch to aqueous based coatings for finished woodBefore switch, two coatings of polyurethane were hand applied
46 Benefits of P2 Changes VOCs reduced from 50 tpy to < 1 tpy HAPs reduced from 10 tpy to < 1 tpyIncreased productivityImproved on-time deliveryBefore, 8 employees made 9,000 units/wkAfter, 4 employees make 14,000 units/wk
47 UV system captures and recycles excess coating Coating use increased 20%, but units produced more than doubledUnit cost for coating decreased 17%Easier cleanup and no solvent useUV coating is more durable
48 Environmental Test Methods Nessler Method for Ammonia Analysis no longer EPA approvedAlternative chemistry for COD testingSubstitute n-Hexane for Freon in FOG analysisRecycle spent hexane with distillationAlternate test method for nitrate – ISE versus cadmium reduction method
49 Minimize Handling of Toxins 3/25/2017Minimize Handling of ToxinsConsumer batteries (Hg, Cd)Freon, DDT, PCBsPb - paint, gasoline, ammo, solderHg - fungicide, coal, instruments
50 P2 Rules of Thumb - Bishop 3/25/2017P2 Rules of Thumb - BishopPrevent creation of the wasteMinimize handling of toxinsOperate at higher efficiencyImprove product qualityAbsorb past wastes into current operations
51 Xerox Corporation 24 Pallet Sizes 400 Suppliers Thousands of different box sizes$500,000 per year to send 4 million boxes to landfillBox Reuse Program9 Standard Box Sizes2 Standard PalletsDesigned to fit into assembly line60% to 80% of all parts now come in standard size boxesSupplier agreement
52 $ Xerox Corporation Using 2.4 – 3.2 million FEWER boxes per year Compatible with Just-in-Time deliverySturdier boxesBoxes reused average of 8 timesSaved $1.5 million on pallet disposalEfficient “cube out” = Reduced freight costsReduced storage costs$
53 P2 Rules of Thumb - Bishop 3/25/2017P2 Rules of Thumb - BishopPrevent creation of the wasteMinimize handling of toxinsOperate at higher efficiencyImprove product qualityAbsorb past wastes into current operations
54 Improving Product Quality Longer Product Life - CarsGrocery bagsSingle use versus multiple useStronger to eliminate double baggingLarger capacity means fewer bagsBottle / Aluminum can redesignLess materialSame product qualityGains back up through the supply line
55 P2 Rules of Thumb - Bishop 3/25/2017P2 Rules of Thumb - BishopPrevent creation of the wasteMinimize handling of toxinsOperate at higher efficiencyImprove product qualityAbsorb past wastes into current operations
56 Manufacturing Cheese Curds = 15% while Whey = 85% Whey Characteristics BOD of 30,000 – 50,000 mg/L5% to 6% total solids70% of solids are lactose4% to 9% of solids are protein and mineralsInternal recycling and recovery of “waste products” for P2Still need some wastewater treatment
62 That’s not the whole story Clean in Place (CIP)Nitric acidPhosphoric acidSodium hydroxideHot waterAcids and “cow water” used multiple cyclesEventually – all water goes to wastewater treatment plant (WWTP)Resource recovery happens even here!
63 Rule of Thumb 3 You don’t need to know everything. Know where to find the information.Stay one day ahead of the client.
64 The Material Balance A prime means of enforcement 3/25/2017The Material BalanceA prime means of enforcementDefines rate and composition of process inputs and outputsInteracts with the energy balanceProvides understanding of process control constraintsHelps to locate fugitive emissions and waste/lost product
65 Conversion of NH3-N to NO3-N uses 7.14 lb alkalinity per lb converted. Bacteria convert ammonia to nitrateN2Anoxic TankAerobic TankNO3-NNO3-NNH3-NNH3-NNH3-NAlkalinityAlkalinityAlkalinityBacteria convert nitrate to nitrogen gasConversion of NH3-N to NO3-N uses 7.14 lb alkalinity per lb converted.Conversion of NO3-N to N2 generates 3.57 lb alkalinity per lb of N2.
66 25 = 14 + 5 14 5 25 < 1 240 122 What has to be true? Bacteria convert ammonia to nitrateN2Anoxic TankAerobic TankNO3-NNO3-N525NH3-NNH3-NNH3-N< 1Alkalinity240122AlkalinityAlkalinityBacteria convert nitrate to nitrogen gas25 =What has to be true?
67 Analyze Background Information and Flow Diagrams Waste types, volumes, and disposal costsWritten procedures for waste handlingCurrent waste reduction activitiesPurchasing records and specificationsProcess quality control dataProcess flow diagrams
69 Conduct a Facility Walk-Through Follow the process flow diagram.Look for sources of waste and opportunities to eliminate, reduce, reuse, or recycle.Observe both normal operations and sporadic events such as cleanup and product changes.Ask questions.
70 Key Questions What type of waste is it? Where did it come from? How much of it is there?How much do you pay to get rid of it?If it’s raw material, how much did you pay for it?Is it possible to reduce or eliminate it?
71 Materials In = Materials Out Perform a Mass BalanceMaterials In = Materials OutGo back to the process flow diagram.Move from process to process.Identify all inputs and outputs.Determine waste volumes and costs.List waste reduction options.
72 Perform a Mass Balance Outputs Inputs Painted Parts Empty Drums Air EmissionsWaste SolventWaste PaintSoiled RagsUsed Air FiltersPaintingProcessInputsPaintUnpainted PartsEnergySolventsRagsAir Filters
74 Prepare a Waste Assessment Report Summarize background information.Review waste generation and existing methods of waste management.List waste reduction opportunities.Include an economic assessment of current and proposed activities.