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0 2 The Science of Macroeconomics (edited by L. Lamb, 2011)

1 In this chapter, you will learn:
…the meaning and measurement of the most important macroeconomic statistics: 2.1 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) 2.2 The Consumer Price Index (CPI) 2.3. The unemployment rate 1

2 2.1 Gross Domestic Product: Expenditure and Income
Two ways to look at GDP: Total expenditure on domestically-produced final goods and services. Total income earned by domestically-located factors of production. Expenditure equals income because every dollar spent by a buyer becomes income to the seller.

3 The Circular Flow Households Firms Income ($) Labor Goods
Expenditure ($) Households Goods Firms

4 Value added Value added: The value of output minus the value of the intermediate goods used to produce that output

5 Final goods, value added, and GDP
GDP = value of final goods produced = sum of value added at all stages of production. The value of the final goods already includes the value of the intermediate goods, so including intermediate and final goods in GDP would be double-counting.

6 Table 2.1 GDP and the Components of Expenditure: 2008 Mankiw and Scarth: Macroeconomics, Canadian Fourth Edition Copyright © 2011 by Worth Publishers

7 The expenditure components of GDP
consumption, C investment, I government spending, G net exports, NX An important identity: Y = C I G NX value of total output aggregate expenditure

8 Consumption (C) definition: The value of all goods and services bought by households. Includes: durable goods nondurable goods services

9 Investment (I) Spending on goods bought for future use (i.e., capital goods) Includes: Business fixed investment Residential fixed investment Inventory investment

10 Investment vs. Capital Note: Investment is spending on new capital.
Example (assumes no depreciation): January 1, 2012: economy has $500b worth of capital during 2012: investment = $60b January 1, 2013: economy will have $560b worth of capital

11 Government spending (G)
G includes all government spending on goods and services. G excludes transfer payments because they do not represent spending on goods and services.

12 NOW YOU TRY: An expenditure-output puzzle?
Suppose a firm: produces $10 million worth of final goods only sells $9 million worth Does this violate the expenditure = output identity?

13 GNP vs. GDP Gross National Product (GNP): Total income earned by the nation’s factors of production, regardless of where located Gross Domestic Product (GDP): Total income earned by domestically-located factors of production, regardless of nationality GNP – GDP = factor payments from abroad minus factor payments to abroad

14 Real vs. nominal GDP GDP is the value of all final goods and services produced. nominal GDP measures these values using current prices. real GDP measure these values using the prices of a base year.

15 GDP Deflator Inflation rate: the percentage increase in the overall level of prices One measure of the price level: GDP deflator Definition:

16 Chain-Weighted Real GDP
Over time, relative prices change, so the base year should be updated periodically. In essence, chain-weighted real GDP updates the base year every year, so it is more accurate than constant-price GDP. Your textbook usually uses constant-price real GDP, because: the two measures are highly correlated. constant-price real GDP is easier to compute. Since constant-price GDP is easier to understand and compute, and because the two measures of real GDP are so highly correlated, this textbook emphasizes the constant-price version of real GDP. However, if this topic is important to you and your students, you should have them carefully read pp , and give them one or two exercises requiring students to computer or compare constant-price and chain-weighted real GDP. Since 2001, Stats Canada used chain-weighted measures of RGDP. i.e. to calculate real growth from 2009 to 2010, average prices in the 2 years were used. Then prices in 2010 & 2011 will be used to compare growth. Example: economic growth is % change in RGDP. Growth for 2010 is calculated using average prices from 2009 & 2010; Growth for 2011 is calculated using average prices from 2010 & 2011; Growth for 2012 is calculated using average prices from 2011 & 2012.

17 2.2 Consumer Price Index (CPI)
A measure of the overall level of prices In Canada, it is published by Statistics Canada Regarding the comparison of dollar figures from different years: If we want to know whether the average college graduate today is better off than the average college graduate of 1975, we can’t simply compare the nominal salaries, because the cost of living is so much higher now than in We can use the CPI to express the 1975 in “current dollars”, i.e. see what it would be worth at today’s prices. Also: when the price of oil (and hence gasoline) shot up in 2000, some in the news reported that oil prices were even higher than in the 1970s. This was true, but only in nominal terms. If you use the CPI to adjust for inflation, the highest oil price in 2000 is still substantially less than the highest oil prices of the 1970s.

18 How CPI is constructed 1. Survey consumers to determine composition of the typical consumer’s “basket” of goods 2. Every month, collect data on prices of all items in the basket; compute cost of basket 3. CPI in any month equals

19 Why the CPI may overstate inflation
Substitution bias Introduction of new goods Unmeasured changes in quality Substituiion bias: when price of product rises, consumer substitutes another good ie. Grapefruit for oranges. Fixed weight feature of the index, thus impact of higher price on the consumer’s budget is not accurate. New goods are not added until they become common. Over time, technological advances increase the life of a product and are not reflected in CPI eg. Tires on your car….quality has increased over the years.

20 Figure 2.3 The Inflation Rate as Measured by the GDP Deflator and the CPI Mankiw and Scarth: Macroeconomics, Canadian Fourth Edition Copyright © 2011 by Worth Publishers

21 2.3 Measuring Joblessness: Categories of the population
employed unemployed labor force not in the labor force

22 Figure 2.4 The Three Groups of the Population Mankiw and Scarth: Macroeconomics, Canadian Fourth Edition Copyright © 2011 by Worth Publishers

23 Two important labor force concepts
unemployment rate labor force participation rate

24 Figure 2.5 Okun’s Law Mankiw and Scarth: Macroeconomics, Canadian Fourth Edition Copyright © 2011 by Worth Publishers

25 2.4 Chapter Summary Gross Domestic Product (GDP) measures both total income and total expenditure on the economy’s output of goods & services. Nominal GDP values output at current prices; real GDP values output at constant prices. Changes in output affect both measures, but changes in prices only affect nominal GDP. GDP is the sum of consumption, investment, government purchases, and net exports. 25

26 Chapter Summary The overall level of prices can be measured by either:
the Consumer Price Index (CPI), the price of a fixed basket of goods purchased by the typical consumer, or the GDP deflator, the ratio of nominal to real GDP The unemployment rate is the fraction of the labor force that is not employed. 26

27 Homework End of chapter 2 in textbook: Questions for review: 1,2,3,4 Problems & Applications: 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8 & 9

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