2 Thermal EnergyJames Prescott Joule ( ) spent much of his honeymoon studying waterfalls.He noticed that the water at the bottom of a waterfall had a higher temperature than at the top.How might this happen?Gravitational Potential -> Kinetic Energy -> Thermal Energy
3 Thermal Energy and Heat Thermal energy and heat play significant roles in our lives from the furnaces that heat our homes to winds generated by the uneven heating of the Earth’s surface. Even most of the food that we consume is converted into thermal energy.
4 Thermal EnergyThe total kinetic energy and potential energy of the atoms or molecules of a substance.Depends on: mass, temperature, nature and state of matter
5 HeatA measure of the energy transferred from a warm body to a cooler body because of a difference in temperature.
6 Calculating hEATThe amount of heat released or gained during a temperature change can be found from,𝑄=𝑚𝑐Δ𝑇Where,𝑄 is the heat in Joules𝑚 is the mass of substance𝑐 is the specific heat capacity J/kgoCΔ𝑇 is the change in temperature ( 𝑇 𝑓 − 𝑇 𝑖 )
7 Specific Heat Capacity Scientists define specific heat capacity of a substance as the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of that substance by 1 0C.These are generally known values for most substances.
8 ExampleA beaker of 250 g of water is heated over a bunsen burner from room temperature (20 0C) to boiling point (100 0C). The heat capacity of water is J/kg0C. How much heat does the water gain?
9 TemperatureA measure of the average kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules of a substance.
10 How Heat Spreads from One Region to Another All things are made up of moleculesWhen objects are heated, they absorb thermal energy.This means that the molecules are absorbing the thermal energy.With more energy, the molecules are able to move faster.When the molecules move faster, the temperature of the object increases.Temperature increase means the object gets hotter.
11 Example 1Consider two samples of water: 100 g at 50 °C and g at 50° C50° C50° C50° C
12 Example 1The two samples have the same temperature, but the bigger sample contains more thermal energy because there’s more of it. If the samples were mixed, no heat transfer would occur because they are the same temperature50° C50° C50° C
13 Example 2Consider two other samples of water: 500 g at 50°C and 500 g at 90° C70° C50° C90° C
14 Example 2The masses are the same but the warmer sample has more thermal energy because the water particles have more motion, that is, the average kinetic energy of the molecules is greater at a higher temperature. When the two samples are mixed, heat would transfer from the 90 °C sample to the 50° C.70° C50° C90° C
15 Example (Grade 11 Physics) A beaker containing 250 g of water at 250C is poured into another beaker that initially contains 350 g of water at 850C. What is the final temperature of the mixed water?
17 Three Methods of Heat Transfer ConductionProcess by which the collision of atoms and electrons transfers heat through a material or between two materials in contact.ConvectionProcess of transferring heat by a circulating path of fluid particles.RadiationProcess in which energy is transferred by means of electromagnetic waves.
18 Conduction Collision of atoms and electrons transfers heat Particles with more kinetic energy transfer some of their energy to neighbouring particles with lower kinetic energy increases the kinetic energy of the neighbouring particles.Occurs mainly in solidsTwo types of conductionMolecular vibrationFree electron diffusionNote: Conduction is not the main form of heat transfer in liquids and gases because their molecules are spaced further apart.
19 Molecular VibrationWhen heat is supplied to one end, the molecules at the hot end start to vibrate more vigorously.In the process, they ‘bump’ into their neighboring molecules. In doing so, some energy is transferred to the neighbour.The neighbour molecule gains energy and starts to vibrate more vigorously. The cycle continues.
20 Free Electron Diffusion This form of conduction takes place only in metals. As only metals have free electrons.The electrons are freed from the molecule when heated and they travel towards the cold end.At the cold end they collide into a molecule therefore passing all their energy to the molecule.
21 Methods of Conduction Molecular vibration Free electron diffusion Occurs in all solidsSlow processOccurs in metals onlyFast processThis explains why metals heat up faster:Metals have 2 mechanisms of conduction occuring at the same time.In metals, free electron diffusion is the main mechanism, which is faster.
22 Conductors and Insulators Materials that can conduct heat easily and readily (eg. Metals) are known as conductors.Materials that do not conduct heat easily (eg. Water, air, plastic) are known as insulators.
23 Convection Transferring heat by a circulating path of fluid particles. Occurs in liquids and gasesDoes not occur in solids because the molecules are not free to move around
24 Example Taking the example of heating water Water at the bottom is heated firstHeated water expandsWhen water expands density decreasesHeated water of lower density starts to riseCooler water of higher density rushes in from sides to take its placeThe cooler water gets heated and the cycle repeats.Convection currents are set up.
25 ConvectionSince Earth’s surface is over 70 percent water, water has a large effect on Earth’s climate. Therefore, regions closer to large bodies of water tend to experience more moderate weather conditions than regions farther from them.
26 Radiation Energy is transferred by means of electromagnetic waves. Radiation does not require a medium to transfer heat. (can occur in a vacuum)Sun releases electromagnetic waves (heat is contained in the waves as infra-red)Hotter objects radiates more heat.
27 RadiationAny substance at a higher temperature than its surroundings will emit radiant energy, usually as infrared radiation. The warmed matter then transfers some of its thermal energy to substances at lower temperatures or re-emits it as IR.
28 Emitters and Absorbers The Sun gives out the heat.It is known as an emitter / radiatorThe Earth takes in the heat.It is known as an absorber.
29 Conservation of Energy Law of Conservation of EnergyWhen energy changes from one form to another, no energy is created or destroyed.In ideal situations, no energy is lost to friction.In real situations, some energy is needed to overcome friction.This results in the production of waste thermal energy and, sometimes, sound energy.
34 Heating/Cooling Curve We learned that when you add heat to a substance, the temperature increases. When you remove heat, the temperature decreases.BUT, an interesting thing occurs when an object is undergoing a change of state. During a change of state, the temperature remains constant. The heat being added or removed is going into breaking or creating the bonds between the particles in the different states. If you measured the temperature of a solid substance to the point where it melts to a liquid, then continued heating the liquid until it boiled and turned entirely to a gas, you would get the following graph of temperature versus time.
36 Latent Heat Latent Heat of Fusion 𝑄 𝑓 =𝑚 𝐿 𝑓 The amount of thermal energy absorbed when a substance melts or released when it freezes.𝑄 𝑓 =𝑚 𝐿 𝑓Where 𝐿 𝑓 is the specific latent heat of fusion.Latent Heat of VaporizationThe amount of thermal energy absorbed when a substance evaporates or released when it condenses.𝑄 𝑣 =𝑚 𝐿 𝑣Where 𝐿 𝑣 is the specific latent heat of fusion.
37 ExampleA 300 g block of ice at -25 0C is heated until it eventually becomes 300 g of water vapour at 110 0C. How much total heat does this take?