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Presentation on theme: "MUHAMMAD AHMED HUSSAIN"— Presentation transcript:


2 You Will Learn… That a computer requires both hardware and software to work About the many different hardware components inside and connected to a computer How the CPU works and how it communicates with other devices

3 Hardware Needs Software to Work
Physical components of the computer (monitor, keyboard, memory chips, hard drive) Software Set of instructions that directs hardware to accomplish a task

4 Functions of the Microcomputer

5 Binary Number System Technology of storing and reading only two values: on and off Bits and bytes Originated in the 1940s by John Atanasoff

6 Binary Number System

7 Binary Number System

8 PC Hardware Components
Input/output devices: outside computer case Processing and storage components: inside the case Elements required by hardware devices to operate: Method for CPU to communicate with it Software to instruct and control it Electricity to power it

9 Hardware Used for Input and Output
Connects to computer case by ports Most popular input devices: Keyboard Mouse Most popular output devices: Monitor Printer

10 Ports

11 Input Devices

12 Output Devices

13 Hardware Inside the Case
Motherboard (contains CPU, memory, etc.) Floppy drive, hard drive, and CD-ROM drive (permanent storage) Power supply with cords supplying electricity to all devices inside the case continued…

14 Hardware Inside the Case
Circuit boards (used by CPU to communicate with devices inside/outside the case) Contain microchips, which are most often manufactured using CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) technology Cables that connect devices to circuit boards and the motherboard Data cables Power cables (or power cords)

15 Peripheral Devices Communicate with CPU but are not located directly on the motherboard Some are linked by expansion cards in expansion slots on the motherboard


17 The Motherboard Largest, most important circuit board in the computer
Contains the CPU, with which all devices must communicate: Installed directly on the motherboard Linked by a cable connected to a port on the motherboard Indirectly linked by expansion cards Also called the main board or system board

18 The Motherboard

19 Ports on a Motherboard

20 Major Components on All Motherboards
For processing: CPU Chip set For temporary storage: RAM Cache memory Electrical system: Power supply connections For communication with other devices: Traces Expansion slots System clock Programming and setup data: Flash ROM CMOS setup chip

21 The CPU Most important chip (the microprocessor)
Performs most of actual data processing

22 The Chip Set Controls flow of data and instructions to and from the CPU Provides careful timing of activities

23 The Chip Set

24 CPU and Chip Set Manufacturers
IBM-compatible PCs Intel Corporation AMD VIA SiS Cyrix Macintosh (Apple Computer, Inc.) Motorola Corporation

25 Storage Devices Temporary (primary storage, or memory)
Temporarily holds data and instructions while processing them Faster to access than permanent storage Permanent (secondary storage) Data and instructions must be copied into primary storage (RAM) for processing

26 Primary and Secondary Storage

27 Primary Storage Devices
Memory, or RAM, located on motherboard and other circuit boards Volatile versus nonvolatile (or ROM) memory Common types of boards that hold memory chips SIMMs (single inline memory modules) DIMMs (dual inline memory modules) RIMMs (memory modules manufactured by Rambus, Inc.)

28 RAM Chips

29 Types of RAM Modules

30 Secondary Storage Devices
Hard disks Floppy disks Zip drives CD-ROMs DVDs

31 Hard Drive Uses EIDE (Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics) technology Motherboard can accommodate up to four IDE devices on one system IDE provides two connectors on a motherboard for two data cables

32 Motherboard with Connectors

33 A Typical System


35 Hard Drive’s Power Supply

36 Floppy Drive Cable

37 Floppy Drive Connection

38 CD-ROM Drive

39 Motherboard Components Used for Communication Among Devices
The bus System of pathways used for communication and the protocol and methods used for transmission Includes a data bus, address bus, and control bus

40 Bus Lines

41 Data Bus

42 System Clock Synchronizes activity on the motherboard
Sends continuous pulses over the bus that are used by different components to control the pace of activity Frequency of activity is measured in MHz, or 1 million cycles per second

43 System Clock

44 Bus Lines Lines of a bus, including data, instruction, and power lines, often extend to the expansion slots Types of expansion slots PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) For high-speed input/output devices) AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port) For a video card ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) Used by older and/or slower devices)

45 Bus Lines

46 Types of Expansion Slots

47 Interface (Expansion) Cards
Enable CPU to connect to external device or to a network

48 Interface (Expansion) Cards


50 Full View of a Video Card

51 The Electrical System Power supply
Most important component of computer’s electrical system Converts/reduces electricity to voltage the computer can handle Runs a fan directly from electrical output voltage to cool inside of computer case

52 Electrical System

53 Electrical System

54 Instructions and Data Stored on the Motherboard
ROM BIOS Holds software needed to start up PC and begin loading an OS Most are flash ROM CMOS chip Stores setup (configuration) information Setup information can also be set by means of jumpers and DIP (dual inline package) switches Powered by a battery on motherboard when power is off

55 ROM BIOS Chip

56 ROM BIOS Chip

57 CMOS Chip

58 Using Jumpers

59 DIP Switches

60 How a CPU Works and Communicates with Other Devices
Responsible for most processing Depends on chip set, system clock, and buses to move data to and from I/O devices, memory, and secondary storage Only two states: on and off

61 Components of a CPU Input/output (I/O) unit
Manages data/instructions entering/leaving CPU One or more arithmetic logic units (ALU) Does all comparisons and calculations Control unit Manages all activities inside CPU itself

62 Components of a CPU

63 How the CPU Works Registers hold data and instructions while it processes them Memory cache holds data and instructions just before they are processed Internal bus runs at different speed than external bus

64 How the CPU Uses Memory CPU accesses memory by way of the data bus

65 How CPU and Devices Use System Bus to Communicate

66 The Address Bus

67 The Control Bus System clock control line
Provides timing for motherboard components Interrupt request (IRQ) lines Used by devices to get CPU’s attention; assigned at startup Read/write control lines How to use address on address bus (read or write operation) I/O control lines How to use address lines (memory addresses or I/O addresses)

68 Interrupt Request (IRQ) Lines

69 I/O Control Lines

70 Understanding Binary With computers, everything is binary; every process is a series of zeros and ones Decimal and hexadecimal notations are two shorthand ways of displaying binary numbers


72 Understanding Binary Hexadecimal notation (hex)
Shorthand way to display long binary numbers; easier for humans to understand Built on multiples of sixteen ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) standard Has assigned an 8-bit code for letters, symbols, and other characters

73 Chapter Summary An introduction to the inside of the computer
Initial insight into how hardware components of a computer system work How a CPU works and communicates with other devices Understanding binary



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