Presentation on theme: "JOB ANALYSIS and HR PLANNING Week 2 ________________________ Agata Mirowska DeGroote School of Business McMaster University."— Presentation transcript:
1 JOB ANALYSIS and HR PLANNING Week 2 ________________________ Agata Mirowska DeGroote School of Business McMaster University
2 Human Resource Strategies Planning HRAttracting HRPlacing, Developing & Evaluating HRMotivating and Rewarding HRMaintaning high performance
3 What is a job? Job Tasks Position Group of related activities and dutiesMade up of tasksTasksBasic elements of jobs“what gets done”PositionTasks and responsibilities performed by one individual
4 What is Job Analysis?Job analysis (JA) systematically collects, evaluates, and organizes information about jobsJA identifies behaviours, knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) that are critical to a job
5 In-Class Discussion Why is JA Important What HR systems use JA Information
6 What is the purpose of JA? JA lays the foundation for HRM systems:SelectionSelection system developed to assess key KSAsEnsures that it is job-relatedTrainingGaps in KSAs of new hires represent training needs
7 What is the purpose of JA? Performance AppraisalJob analysis establishes performance standardsCompensationRelative worth of jobs measured via job evaluation
8 What is the purpose of JA? JA helps you to select the right employee, evaluate the employee fairly, compensate, and train the appropriate skills to the appropriate employees (in theory)JA also ensures your system is legally defensible and perceived as fair (procedural justice)
9 Job Analysis Process Prepare for JA Collection of JA information Use of JA information
10 Steps in Job Analysis Process Phase 1: Preparation for job analysisFamiliarization with the organization and its jobsDetermine the uses of the JA information (selection, training?)Identify what jobs need to be analyzedCritical to success of the organizationDifficult to learnNew technology
11 Steps in Job Analysis Process Phase 2: Collection of Information1. Determine sources of job dataHuman and nonhuman2. Data collection instrument designJob analysis schedules3. Choice of method for data collectionInterviewsMailed questionnairesEmployee logObservationCombinations1111
13 Functional Job Analysis (FJA) Fine & Wiley (1971)Focuses on task statementsTask statements include:What? - What gets done (the action/behaviour)To whom or what? - The object of the actionWhy? - Purpose of the actionHow? - What facilitates the action?
14 Functional Job Analysis Tasks are rated on scales reflecting varying degrees of involvement with Things, Data, and People as well as math, language, etc. requirementsEach scale is arranged hierarchicallyE.g., People scale ranges from “taking instructions” to “leadership”
15 Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) McCormick (1972)Developed because of criticism that JA relied on observation – not quantifiableDetailed questionnaire (194 tasks)Determines extent to which each task is applicable to target jobUsing a 5-point scale
17 Critical Incident Technique Flanagan (1949)Identifies behaviours that indicate success or failure on the jobEffective vs ineffective behavioursCritical Incidents include:Context - in which the incident occurredBehaviour - exactly what the individual did that was effective or ineffectiveConsequences - of the behaviour and whether or not consequences were in the employee’s control
18 Developing Critical Incidents Interview those who are familiar with the jobE.g., supervisors, subordinates, customersAsk them to describe specific incidents of effective / ineffective behaviour by incumbents of target jobIncident context – What led up to the incident (background)? What was the situation?Behaviour – What exactly did the person do that was effective / ineffective?Consequence - What was the outcome of the behaviour?
19 In-Class ExerciseIn groups, develop critical incidents for a specific job with which you are familiar. (Non-managerial preferred)Generate at least:3 incidents of effective behaviour and3 incidents of ineffective behaviour
20 Critical Incident Technique Think of someone who has been (in)effective in this specific job.Think of a specific incident that you saw occur that made you think they were (in)effectiveWhat were the circumstances surrounding the incident? What was the situation?What exactly did they do that was (in)effective?Make sure you are describing observable behaviourWhat were the consequences of the behaviour?Were the consequences due to the person’s behaviour?
21 Phase 3: Use of Information JobDescriptionsJobSpecificationsJob AnalysisInformationJobDesignJobPerformanceStandards21
22 Phase 3: Use of Information 1. Job descriptions—Task requirementsStatement that explains duties working conditions, etc. of a job2.Job specifications—Person requirementsStatement of what a job demands of the incumbentE.g., knowledge, skills, abilities (KSAs) and other characteristics required to perform job22
23 Phase 3: Use of Information Performance standardsWhat is expected of workersJA may provide performance standards for jobJob DesignIdentify job duties, characteristics, and competencesConsider organizational, employee, environmental and ergonomic factorsAll of these uses become the foundation for various HRM systems23
24 Job Characteristic Model Jobs that provide:AutonomyVarietyTask identityFeedbackTask significanceLead to meaningfulness, responsibility and knowledge of outcomes, leading to higher motivation, job satisfaction and productivity
25 Job SpecializationAs work force becomes more educated and affluent, seek accomplishment, recognition and psychological growthJob rotationJob enlargementJob enrichmentEmployee involvement and work teams
26 Competency-Based Alternative Alternative to traditional job analysisCompetenciesMany different definitions existAny knowledge, skills, trait, motive, attitude, value, or other personal characteristic that is essential to perform the job and that contributes to superior performance and organizational success26
27 Competency Architecture Core CompetenciesApply to all jobs in the organizationSupport organization’s missionE.g., trust, communication, team orientation, adaptabilityFunctional CompetenciesApply to a group of similar jobsE.g., customer service orientationJob-Specific CompetenciesApply to all employees in the same jobE.g., ability to operate cash register27
28 Why / When use Competency Models? Describe job requirements in ways that extend beyond the job itselfMore future-oriented, more organization-focusedDescribe and measure an organization’s workforce in more general and comparable termsIncrease flexibility in staffing and job assignments28
29 Competency: Team Orientation INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTOR (behaviours)Recognizes that own success is linked to team successSupports team roles, norms, and decisionsSpeaks up when he/she feels the team is heading in the wrong directionSeeks and maintains positive relationships with teams and others outside of own groupKeeps other informed of decisions and information that may impact them2929
30 Competency: Team Orientation MANAGER (behaviours)Creates and monitors teams appropriate to meet business objectivesSets clear expectations for teamsWorks to build commitment toward common goalsProvides resources for team projectsRecognizes team for contributions to goal accomplishmentMeasures own success by team’s success
32 Human Resource Planning HR Planning systematically forecasts an organization’s future demand for and supply of employees and matches supply with demand.Involves-Forecasting demand-Forecasting supply-Addressing labour shortages and surpluses3232
34 Forecasting Techniques used to Predict HR Demand Expert ForecastsE.g. Informal and formal surveyTrend Projection ForecastsE.g. Statistical analysisOther Forecasting MethodsBudget and planning analysisNew-venture analysis
35 When is there a mismatch between Supply and Demand?
36 Strategies to Match Supply and Demand for HR Strategies for a Loose Labour Market (Oversupply)- hiring freeze- job sharing/job splitting- internal transfers- layoffs, terminations, outplacements- leave without pay- loaning or flexforce
37 Matching Strategies cont… Strategies for a Tight Labour Market (Shortage)- overtime- PT, contingent, contract workers- temporary employment agencies- employee leasing- transfers- hiring FT workers
38 Emerging Work Options & Arrangements Shorter work weekFlextimeFlexiplaceTelecommutingVirtual organizationsJust-in-Time Employees
39 Strategic Issues re: HR Planning Must know organization’s short and long- term goalsDifferent organizational strategies require different human resource plansHuman resource planning facilitates proactive response to environmental and legal challenges
40 Strategic Issues re: HR Planning An organization’s tactical plans must be aligned with HR plansAlignment between organizational and HR plans provides basis for timely and effective recruitment and selection.