Presentation on theme: "3 Streams leading to Marxism French Revolution –Abrupt, total revolution –Success of Bourgeoisie British Industrial Revolution –Position of labor –condition."— Presentation transcript:
3 Streams leading to Marxism French Revolution –Abrupt, total revolution –Success of Bourgeoisie British Industrial Revolution –Position of labor –condition of Working Class Engels German Philosophy of Hegel
Philosophy of Hegel Dialectics –Thesis vs. Antithesis=synthesis Historic change comes through the clash of antagonistic elements. History is a process of development through time, logical and deterministic, everything happens in sequence by cause. Hegel saw primacy of ideas that cause change, Marx focused on economic reality.
Marxian view of Historical Development Material conditions give rise to economic classes. Each class develops ideology suited to its needs. –Prevailing religion, government, law, morals reflect the outlook of these classes
Class antagonism Agrarian Conditions produce landholding class Changes in trade routes, money, productive techniques, leads to rise of Bourgeoisie Eventually Bourgeoisie and landholding class clash –England 1642 –France 1789
Development of Proletariat As the Bourgeoisie develops there is a corresponding development in the proletariat. According to Marx the Bourg. Is defined as those who own capital Proletariat does not own capital Under competitive conditions the Bourg. Devour themselves The Proletariat then overthrows the Bourg. In a revolution.
Results of Proletariat revolution Abolish private property/private ownership of capital Classless society results State withers Religion disappears
Marxist ideas Labor theory of value –Value of any man-made object depended on the amount of labor put into it. Capital is the stored up labor of past times. Surplus value theory –The worker is paid less than the value of his labor (e.g. product sells for $10 and the total worker wage is $3, according to Marx the worker has had $7 stolen from him) –Capital therefore is accumulated surplus value that the prevailing system (govt, religion, law, education, etc.) has allowed the owner to steal from the worker.
Marxist ideas, cont. Workers must remain angry. Union gains of higher wages were just more crumbs from the owners table. Even if the worker is paid $5 (referring to the previous example) he is still being robbed of $5. –No Unions, No govt legislation (could the worker make real gains through a govt committed to protecting the ruling classes interests?)
Ideas from Communist Manifesto The worker is deprived of the wealth he himself has created The state is a committee of the bourgeoisie for the exploitation of the worker Religion is a drug to keep the workingman quietly dreaming of his heavenly reward. Opiate of the Masses The working family has been prostituted and brutalized by the bourgeoisie The proletariat have no country
Revolution in France 1848 the July monarchy in France was a platform of boards built over a volcano. Under it burned the repressed fires of republicanism put down in 1830, which since 1830 had become steadily more socialistic Radicals wanted universal suffrage and a republic, but liberals asked only for broader voting rights within the existing constitutional Monarchy Louis Phillipe and his Prime Minister refused any change. Stupid move. What should they have done?
February revolution in France 1848 Banquet in Paris planned for Feb. 22 On February 21 the govt forbade such meetings-that night barricades went up throughout the city Govt called the national guard- refused to move-King now promised electoral reform-too late. Demonstration at Guizots house-20 killed February 24 Louis Phillipe abdicates to…England That leaves us with the liberal reformers and the radical republicans-now it gets interesting.
Creation of provisional government Const. Reformers hoped to carry on with the son of Louis Phillipe Republicans stormed the Chamber of Deputies and proclaimed a republic-no whiff of grapeshot this time. Provisional government: –7 political republicans-Lamartine –3 social republicans- Louis Blanc Blanc was interested in creating social workshops Instead he got national workshops By June there were 200,000 idle men in a city of 1 million
Election of Constituent Assembly Elected in April 1848 by Universal Male suffrage across all of France Immediately replaced provisional govt with temporary executive board of its own This new exec board contained NO socialists
June Days of 1848 One side: nationally elected constituent assembly Other side: National workshops NW unsuccessfully attacked the CA CA declared martial law giving all power to General Cavaignac (the butcher) The bloody June days followed June 24-26 Class war raged in Paris-CA won
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte After the June Days the CA sought to create a republican constitution and elect a new President Louis Napoleon Bonaparte won in a landslide. –Defeated Lamartine, Blanc, Cavignac
Revolution in Austria 1848 Began in Hungary Louis Kossuth-Demanded national autonomy from Austrian Empire, full civil liberties and universal male suffrage Austrian govt hesitated Viennese students and workers took to streets- added own demands Aust. Emp. Ferdinand I gave in-promised reforms and a liberal constitution Metternich fled to London
Weaknesses in Austrian revolutionary coalition Peasants, who made up most of the army, were satisfied by the Govts aboliton of serfdom Hungarian revolutionaries wanted to unify the diverse groups in Hungary- opposed by minority groups-croats, serbs, rumanians-soon were locked in armed combat with the new Hungarian government Middle class wanted liberal reform Urban poor rose in arms-wanted socialist workshops, universal voting rights MC and UP soon were opposing eachother
Reassertion of Conservative forces Ferdinand I abdicates in his place his nephew Francis Joseph Windishgratz-smashed Czechoslovakia Austria defeats revolutionaries in Italy Army (peasants) attacked student workers in Vienna Hungary brought back after Russia went in with 130,000 troops The attempts to liberalize and break up the Austrian empire were unsuccessful.
Revolution in Prussia 1848 Prussias middle class wanted a liberal constitutional monarchy that would unite Germany into a united and liberal German nation. Prussian middle class pushed demands after the French rev of 1848 Demands not granted Workers in Berlin exploded Frederick William IV gave in to demands FWIV promised Prussia liberal const. + merge into German state Workers wanted more
Prussian workers demands March 26 workers issued a series of radical demands: universal voting rights, minimum wage, 10 hour day The Prussian middle class could not go along with it While the tensions in Prussia escalated, an elected body met in Berlin to write a constitution for a Prussian State
Frankfurt Assembly Self appointed from various German States successfully called for a national constituent assembly to begin writing a Const. For a unified German State Denmark distraction: Schleswig/Holstein March 1849, Frankfurt assembly finally offered throne to FWIV By early 1849 reaction had been successful in Prussia FWIV refused the Frankfurt assemblies crown from the gutter