2 Canada's Location on the Globe 1. Name the following on a map of Canada. All provinces,provincial capitals, and oceans. Correct spelling is expected on the exam.2. Which two descriptions best describe Canada’s position on the globe?a) North Western Hemisphereb) Tropical Locationc) Northern Location
3 Canada's Natural Systems 3. What are the four main parts of the earth?Inner core, outer core, mantle and crust – the earth is 4.5 billion years old4. List the ways that crust can be built up.Folding, faulting and volcanic eruptions5. List the ways that the Earth's crust can be worn down.Weathering and erosion6. Define Magma.Molten rock (lava)
4 7. Explain how each type of rock forms 7. Explain how each type of rock forms. Give examples of each type of rock.Igneous – forms when magma cools and hardens (granite, basalt)Sedimentary – forms when layers of sediment are deposited and compressed into solid rock (sandstone, limestone)Metamorphic – forms when rock is changed by heat or pressure (gneiss, marble)
5 8. Briefly describe each landform region. Canadian Shield – rocky, rugged, forests and many lakesAppalachian Mountains – low, rounded mountainsInnuitian Mountains – tall, jagged, snow covered mountains (Arctic)Western Cordillera – tall, jagged, young mountainsInterior Plains – flat, treeless plainHudson Bay and Arctic Lowlands – swampy, tundra, rocky outcropsGreat Lakes-St. Lawrence Lowlands - gently rolling landscape, most populated region
6 9. Define Precipitation.Water that falls from the atmosphere to earth – rain, snow, hail10. The water cycle diagram.
7 3. Match the following types of precipitation to the statements below (more than one match can be made for each):A, B Relief (Orographic Precipitation)E,F,H Cyclonic PrecipitationC,D,G,I Convectional Precipitationa) rain caused as air rises over mountainsb) heavy rain on the windward side of a mountain rangec) occurs in the Prairies in the summerd) creates thunderstorms that can damage wheat cropse) caused by the meeting of cold and warm air massesf) occurs in winter in Southern Ontariog) rain caused as air rises over a heated land surfaceh) rain caused when warm air rises over denser cold airi) can cause tornadoes
8 3. Complete the chart to describe a continental climate region and a maritime climate region.
9 Human Systems 13. What is a census? A survey by the government to gather information about the population14. What is Canada's:a) population millionb) population density people per square kmc) average age 42 years
10 30. Match the following terms with the best description.
11 31. What can we tell about a population from a population pyramid? Age distribution, gender (male/female) distribution, life expectancy (how long people live), rate of population growth32. Describe three ways that the Canadian population is changing.Getting older, becoming more culturally diverse, not growing as quickly33. Who are the Baby Boomers?Large group of people born between 1947 and 1966 following World War Two
12 34. The three main classes of immigrants under Canada’s immigration law are listed here. Describe each category?Economic Immigrants – people coming to Canada to work or people who come to start a business – they fill gaps in our labour force or provide jobs – they must be assessed by the point system (need 67 points)Family Class – people who come to Canada to join a family member who is already here – they are not assessed with the point systemRefugee – a person who fears staying in their home country – Canada may offer a safe haven for them
13 35. A person decides to leave Sudan in Africa, state three push factors that might influence their decision to emigrate.Civil war, poverty, lack of opportunities in education and workforce, poor health care, lack of human rights36. A person decides to come to Canada, state three pull factors that would influence their choice to immigrate to Canada.Safe, stable government, free education, jobs, multicultural society, access to health care, human rights
14 Recreational Mohawk Park Institutional PJCVS Industrial Dura, Sunoco 37. Number these settlements in order by size from smallest to largest.Town, City, Hamlet, Village, Census Metropolitan Area38. Name Canada’s three largest Census Metropolitan Areas.Cities with over 100,000 people – Toronto, Montreal,Vancouver39. Give an example of each type of land use that would be found near PJCVS.Recreational Mohawk ParkInstitutional PJCVSIndustrial Dura, SunocoResidential houses on Lynnwood Ave. and apartmentsCommercial stores and restaurants – Mohawk PlazaAgricultural corn field behind PJHazard Land Grand River floodplainOpen Space gardens on Lynnwood Ave.
15 Human Environment Interactions 40. Match the economic sectors with the examples given.P= Primary (4% of jobs) S= Secondary (21%)T=Tertiary and Q= Quaternary (75%)_P_ Logger _S__ Construction_Q_ Nuclear Medicine _S__ Public Utilities_T__ Hairdresser _P__ Farmer_S__ Auto manufacturing _P_ Miner_T__ Firefighting _T__ Lawyer_Q__ Computer Programmer _T__ Drive-Thru Attendant_P_ Fisherman _T__ Truck Driver
16 41. Define Natural Resource Something that we get from the environment that we find useful42. Define Renewable resourceA natural resource that can be replaced, regrown or replenished – water, trees, animals, fish43. Nonrenewable resource.A natural resource that once used, cannot be replaced – minerals, oil, coal, natural gas
17 44. What is an ecological footprint 44. What is an ecological footprint? What is Canada’s average ecological footprint?A measure of the amount of productive land needed to support our lifestyle. Canada's is 8.56 hectares per person45. Give five ways that you could reduce your ecological footprint.Recycle, turn off lights, ride a bike, eat locally grown food, turn off electronics when not in use, unplug chargers, take shorter showers, turn down the heat, drive a hybrid vehicle
19 47. Give three specific examples to explain why forestry is important to Canada’s economy. Direct employees =Indirect employees =$59 billion in total sales, $48 billionin exports48. Give three specific examples to explainwhy forests are important to our environment.Produce oxygen, provide habitat,reduce flooding and soil erosion49. What is the difference between clear cut logging and selective logging?Clearcutting – ALL trees are cut downSelective cutting – only certain trees are cut down
20 We rank 2nd in per capita (per person) use. Energy50. How does Canada rank in terms of energy use per person? Give 5 reasons why we use so much.We rank 2nd in per capita (per person) use.1. We use a lot for home heating.2. We use a lot for transportation.3. We use a lot for industries.4. We like to have lots of electronic appliances.5. Energy is cheap and we tend to waste it.51. Review your conventional energy chart.52. Review your alternative energy chart.53. List 5 ways that you could use less energy.Shorter showers, turn off lights, unplug chargers, walk to school, recycle more, watch less TV, ride a bike, turn down thermostat at home
21 Global Warming 54. What is the green house effect? It is the ability of the atmosphere to trap heat – greenhouse gases trap heat energy in the atmosphere causing the temperature to go up55. What gases cause the greenhouse effect in the atmosphere?Burning fossil fuels adds Carbon dioxide and decomposing garbage adds methane56. List 6 ways that climate change can affect Canadians.Longer growing seasonTree line moves farther northShorter, less severe wintersLost tourism in winterIncreased tourism in summerCoastal floodingMelting of glaciersMore severe storms
22 a) Appalachian Mountains b) Canadian Shield c) Interior Plains
23 a) Appalachian Mountains b) Western Cordillera c) Canadian Shield
24 a) Great Lakes St. Lawrence Lowlands b) Innuitian Mountainsc) Appalachian Mountains
25 a) Hudson Bay and Arctic Lowlands b) Western Cordillerac) Interior Plains
26 a) Interior Plainsb) Great Lakes St. Lawrence Lowlandsc) Hudson Bay and Arctic Lowlands
27 a) Interior Plainsb) Great Lakes St. Lawrence Lowlandsc) Hudson Bay and Arctic Lowlands
28 a) Interior Plainsb) Great Lakes St. Lawrence Lowlandsc) Hudson Bay and Arctic Lowlands