# Module 1 The Principles of Training

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Module 1 The Principles of Training
AS Level - Week 5 Theory Module 1 The Principles of Training

Principles of Training
(text book cross reference pg 145 to 146) F.I.T.T Regime F – Frequency I – Intensity T – Time T – Type Frequency = How often we train. An elite athlete will train most days depending on the type of activity. Aerobic or endurance activities can be performed 5 or 6 times a week. Anaerobic, such as weight training, 3 or 4 times as rest days are needed for body tissues to repair. Intensity = How hard we train. This can be calculated as either a percentage of a person’s heart rate or as a percentage of a person’s 1 repetition max.

Karvonen Principle – Percentage of heart rate reserve.
220 – your age = max heart rate max heart rate - resting heart rate = heart rate reserve To obtain training heart rate intensity you apply this formula. % of intensity x heart rate reserve + resting heart rate example; 60% training intensity for 35 yr old with resting heart rate of 59 bpm. 0.60 x = 134.6 This formula takes into account a persons current fitness level based on resting heart rate.

One Repetition Max – Percentage of maximum weight lifted.
80% to 100% of max to 6 reps = strength 50% to 60% of max reps = endurance Time = How long we train for. Aerobic activity should last at least 20mins in desired training zone but time depends on the intensity of the exercise. Type = What type of training we use. This needs to be sport specific and will depend on the body system you are hoping to develop.

Warm Ups and Cool Downs Warm Ups
The release of adrenalin will increase heart rate and dilute capillaries, which in turn enable greater amounts and increased speed of oxygen and blood delivery to the muscles. Speed of oxygen delivery is further improved with a decrease in blood viscosity (gets thinner) due to increase in muscle temperature. Increased muscle temperatures will facilitate enzyme activity as well as encourage the disassociation of oxygen from haemoglobin. This increases muscle metabolism ensuring a readily available supply of energy through the breakdown of glycogen. Increased temperature enables greater extensibility and elasticity of muscle fibres leading to increased speed and force of contraction. Increase in alertness due to an increase in the speed of nerve impulse conduction.

Increase in production of synovial fluid ensuring efficient movement at the joints.
Warm ups should be specific to the activity that follows. Raise heart rate = stretch = sport specific skill Cool Downs Keeping heart rate elevated keeps metabolic activity high, capillaries dilated so that oxygen can be flushed through he muscle tissue removing and oxidising any lactic acid build up. Limits blood pooling in the veins which can cause dizziness. Limits the effects of DOMS (Delayed Onset of Muscle Soreness) from the torn muscle fibres and connecting tissue.