4 What typical characteristics of a CBD are shown here? The Tallest Buildings Why?Public Buildings eg. Corn Exchange / Town HallBusy – lots of pedestriansMarkets
5 What typical characteristics of a CBD are shown here? Purpose built shopping centres providing undercover shopping experienceBig Department Stores and National Chain Stores – why?
6 What typical characteristics of a CBD are shown here? Public Buildings eg. Corn Exchange / Town HallSome of the oldest buildingsVery accessible – public transport & traffic management required due to congestion.Historic/ old street pattern – often some narrow streets
7 What typical characteristics of a CBD are shown here? Entertainment – e.g. restaurantsEntertainment e.g. pubsEntertainment e.g. cinemas (although increasingly these are moving further out of town)
8 Urban land use: Zone 1 CBD = Central Business District The CBD is at the heart of a town or city and usually has great accessibility, large shopping and banking areas, and government buildings
9 Characteristics of a CBD Traffic Restrictions e.g. pedestrian areas (like Commercial Rd)Old Core - often narrow streets / historical core (e.g. Old Portsmouth)Little/ No Residential because so expensive, maybe some flats above shopsLand has very high value - due to lack of space and competition for landHistorical buildings (e.g. museums, castles, etc.)Characteristicsof a CBDMany National Chain stores (attract larger numbers of customers + can afford the high land cost/rent - e.g. M&S; WHS; TopshopGovernment buildings (e.g. councils)Many have covered shopping centres (e.g. Cascades)-Very Accessible - major rail and road routes (often find public transport stations meet here - e.g. railway stations / bus stations)Banks, building societies, Estate Agents – where they can receive more customersEntertainment - restaurants, clubs, etc
10 Also known as the Twilight or Transition Zone THE INNER CITY (ZONE 2)Also known as the Twilight or Transition Zone
11 Zone 2 of the Urban Land-use Model – THE INNER CITY Typical style of housing in the Inner CityTypical aerial view of an Inner City Area
13 When and Why did Inner City Areas Grow up? Developed during the 19th century – due to rapid expansion of industry (led to the demand for workers)As more moved to the cities – there was a demand for low cost houses for the workersThis resulted in high-density cheap housing (fitting as many houses as possible in a small areaPeople had to live close to work due to lack of transport
14 What types of land-use are found in Inner City areas? Industry – large factories built during the industrial revolution (now some knocked down / converted)19th Century Terraced HousingCanals and RailwaysMain Roads (often now ring roads taking traffic out of CBDs)
15 Typical Characteristics of Inner City Areas High Density HousingMainly terraced (some back to back)Built in Long Straight RowsFront doors opening onto the streetFew Amenities (little or no sanitation (often built with toilet in Back YardMainly Ethnic Minorities, students, older people and unemployed (lower income groups)Mainly private / rented
16 Problems in Inner City Areas (since 1950s / 1950s) 1. Industrial Decline (see other notes)6. Overcrowding2. High unemployment7. Lack of Open Space3. Abandoned Warehouses – eyesore and led to vandalism8. Lack of Parking Spaces9. Atmospheric Pollution (factories / traffic)4. High Crime Rates10. Lots of heavy traffic (for industry)5. Poor Quality Housing
17 Zone 2: Inner CityWhat is the Inner City? The Inner City is the land-use zone around the city centre, it is also known as the twilight zone or zone of transition. When did the Inner City grow up? Inner city areas grew up in the 19th century as towns increased rapidly due to the Industrial Revolution. This led to the growth of factories and low-cost terraced housing around what is now the city centre.
18 Characteristics of the Inner City Social Problems - high crime rates, above average concentrations of low-income citizensHigh density 19th Century housing and manufacturing.Housing is usually linear, back to back and terracedThis area tends to be run down unless housing has been redevelopedcrowded areas with little open spaceCharacteristics ofthe Inner CityFront doors open straight on to the pavement No front or back gardens (just a small back yard)factories providing employment for residentsLand values are lower than those in the CBD. However, they still remain high. Houses are cheaper to buy / rentPopulation density in the inner city is very high as houses have been squeezed in.
20 INNER AND OUTER SUBURBS Reasons for Suburban GrowthReasons for Suburban GrowthINNER AND OUTER SUBURBSReasons for Growth of the SuburbsBetter public transport and increased car ownership meant people could separate work from where they live.2. Building societies provided mortgages making it easier to buy homes3. People were better off and looking for a better living environment.
21 RURAL-URBAN FRINGEThis has lead to conflict due to different land-uses wanting to locate here (see diagram for examples)
23 On paper, sketch the diagram + label the 5 zones from memory. Recap QsOn paper, sketch the diagram + label the 5 zones from memory.Outer SuburbsInner City/ Twilight ZoneIndustrial ZoneCBDInner Suburbs
24 Recap Qs Which is the oldest part of the city? What does ‘CBD’ stand for?In which zone would you expect to find small terraced housing?Why are there not many detached houses with drives near the CBD?
25 6. Semi-detached houses with gardens 11. Lots of public transport links10. Parks and open spaces18. Modern out-of -town shopping centres16. Terraced housing17. Some garages9. High-rise flats may now replace some run-down areas5. Shops and Offices13. Tall high density buildings1. Leisure and entertainment facilities15. Land is cheaper14. Cheapest housing19. High-value land3. Very few driveways2. Large detached houses with garages8. Grew in response to increased car ownership12. Oldest4. Most expensive houses20. Industry + factories7. NewestMatch up to fit the 5 zones. Cut and stick in to books.
26 Match it up! Colour code the statements to fit the 5 categories: CBD – Inner City/Twilight Zone – Industrial Zone – Inner Suburbs – Outer SuburbsRemember to use a key
27 6. Semi-detached houses with gardens 11. Lots of public transport links10. Parks and open spaces18. Modern out-of -town shopping centres16. Terraced housing17. Some garages9. High-rise flats may now replace some run-down areas5. Shops and Offices13. Tall high density buildings1. Leisure and entertainment facilities15. Land is cheaper14. Cheapest housing19. High-value land3. Very few driveways2. Large detached houses with garages8. Grew in response to increased car ownership12. Oldest4. Most expensive houses20. Industry7. Newest1. Leisure and entertainment facilities2. Large detached houses with garages3. Very few driveways4. Most expensive houses5. Shops and Offices6. Semi-detached houses with gardens7. Newest8. Grew in response to increased car ownership9. High-rise flats may now replace some run-down areas10. Parks and open spaces11. Lots of public transport links12. Oldest13. Tall high density buildings14. Cheapest housing15. Land is cheaper16. Terraced housingMatch up to fit the 5 zones. Cut and stick in to books.17. Some garages18. Modern out-of -town shopping centres19. High-value land20. Industry + factories