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"Summarization in Any Subject" by Rick Wormeli

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1 "Summarization in Any Subject" by Rick Wormeli
Teacher's Handbook for "Summarization in Any Subject" by Rick Wormeli Click to go to the interactive menu

2 Carousel Brainstorming Learning Logs and Journals RAFT
3-2-1 Carousel Brainstorming Learning Logs and Journals RAFT Synectic Summaries Acronyms Charades Lineup Save the Last Word for Me T-chart/T-List Advanced Organizers Concrete Spellings Luck of the Draw Share One; Get One Taboo Analysis Matrices Design a Test Moving Summarizations Socratic Seminars Test Notes Backwards Summaries Exclusion Brainstorming Multiple Intelligences Something-Happened-and Then/Somebody-Wanted-But-So Think-Pair-Share Bloom’s Taxonomy Summary Cubes The Frayer Model One-Word Summaries Sorting Cards Traditional Rule-Based Summaries Body Analogies Human Bingo P-M-I Spelling Bee de Strange Triads Body Sculpture Human Continuum Partners A & B SQ3R Unique Summarization Assignments Build a Model Inner and Outer Circle Point of View Summarization Pyramids Verb? Change them! Camp Songs Jigsaws P-Q-R-S-T Summary Ball Word Splash

3 3-2-1 Write the numbers 3,2,1 down the left side of a paper.
Have students list: “3” new things they learned. “2” things that confuse them “1” way to apply what they learned in another area Note: This can be expressed artistically and orally as well

4 Acronyms Begin by asking students to list the essential attributes of something you are teaching them. Next ask the reader to look at each listed attribute and pick out a keyword Take the first letters of each keyword and make an acronym! Example: The task is to write a strong topic sentence. Students list of attributes……2) Highlight Keywords……3) Take First letter Hook the reader (H) Give information (I) Establish common ground with reader (C) Narrow the topic to a thesis (T) Reflects the details you use (R) Acronym created is CIRTH could stand for Careful Introductions Really Thrill

5 Advanced Organizers Provide students with a fill in the blank style advanced organizer as a scaffolding move to serve as summarization device. How to create one: Step 1: Write out a summarization outline for students. Step 2: Delete key words and phrases and replace with blank lines. Differentiate: Providing blanks that can contain many different answers also challenges students! Example: When dividing mixed numbers, we must first turn each mixed number into a ______________ _________________. Once done, we change the operation from division to _______________. Now we multiply the first fraction by the __________________ of the second fraction. If our Final answer is top-heavy or an ______________ fraction, then we rewrite it as ______________ _____________, and we reduce it to _______________terms.

6 Analysis Matrices and Graphic Organizers
As you begin a unit or lesson, provide students with a matrix or another graphic way to organize the information they are about to encounter. This is a pre-learning activity. Example Questions to Ask Red Cells White Cells Plasma Platelets Purpose? Amount? Size and Shape? Nucleus? Where formed?

7 Backwards Summaries Offer the students summarization experiences in which you give them the final version of something explained, performed, or presented well. Example: A teacher would give a prompt such as… Can you make a web that this paragraph might have come from? Here is a completed math solution. What would happen if I never had this piece of information?

8 Bloom’s Taxonomy Summary Cubes
Distribute poster boards, rulers, glue, or tape and ask the students to make cubes where the sides are six inches long (or provide a template). Label the sides: Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation While students make cubes, pass out a prompt sheet where you post questions to help clarify what is to go on each side. Example of Prompt Sheet: Level Explanation Sample Prompts Comprehension Show your understanding Can you explain how….? What is the difference between x & y? Application Use knowledge If different situations What would happen if we change… Offer a solution to the problem… Analysis Break down the topics Can you defend the character’s actions? Which comment seems the most sincere?

9 Body Analogies Ask students to form a group and determine how the lesson’s content relates to some part of the body. The connections makes the material personal to the student. Example: Fingers & hands: represent artwork, dexterity, connections, etc. This might be used in a discussion on machines or the branches of government. Rib cage/cranium: Symbolizes protection: This might be used when discussing law enforcement , or the bark of a tree

10 Body Sculpture After you have provided your students some information (read a textbook, listened to a lesson, watched a movie, done sample problems) have the students get together and “sculpt” a specific idea presented in class. Students will work together to come up with the key concepts and then use their bodies to depict those concepts. Example: One student stands as a fence, one paints the fence, and one sits and does nothing to Summarize a chapter from Tow Sawyer. Teacher follows up by asking questions about the sculptures: Sample questions: “Which sculpture best summarizes what we read (did) today?

11 Build a Model Think of how what you are teaching (the key concepts) can be represented in some sort of physical model. The models can be 3-D or drawn too. Guide students by giving them materials and time to plan what their model will be. Differentiation: Concepts can be modeled as well (these will be more abstract and harder) Vocabulary or physical concepts can be modeled (these are easier) Teachers can follow up with questions and presentations that compare the group models.

12 Camp Songs Have students select a camp song from a variety and spend some time learning it. Have the students replace the lyrics (but keep the tune) with ideas and concepts from what you are teaching. The first time you may have to spend some time writing a couple verses with the class. Poetry can work well in this manner too! Examples of Songs to Use: Puff the Magic Dragon Home on the Range Head, Shoulders, Knees, and Toes Boom-Chicka-Boom

13 Carousel Brainstorming
Post newsprint or poster boards around the room that show quotes, questions, or concepts relating to the week’s learning. Break students up into groups and give each group a different colored marker. Each group starts at a different poster/newsprint. The groups will add ideas to the topic posted and then rotate to a new poster after some time. The groups must review the information at their poster each time before they add something new.

14 Charades Divide the class into two teams.
The teams break into groups of 3 or 4 (or pairs in acceptable). Students will start by discussing key topics (presented by the teacher or not). Students will then take turns making pantomimes that represent the key topics discussed. Students will switch off taking turns pantomiming and guessing what the pantomime is. Bring the teams back together and have them present their pantomimes to each other.

15 Concrete Spellings S T A L L P E T S
After representing classroom content and skills to students, identify essential vocabulary terms. Ask the students to spell the words in a way that shows their meaning. Students can be invited to review and generate better definitions. Examples of Concrete Spelling: S T A L L P E T S

16 Design a Test Explain how teachers come up with test questions and review the various types of test questions. Have students generate multiple-choice, true and false, fill-in-the-blank, matching, diagrams, short essay, analogies, and even inventing something new! Once students have mastered writing general questions, have them make two questions (with answers) on content being taught. After mastering two questions, have students make a quiz or test on the content and review it with a peer. The teacher may choose to use well-constructed questions on the real test.

17 Exclusive Brainstorming
Write a topic sentence on an overhead or chalkboard, followed by a series of words. All the words (except for one) should connect to the topic). Students will work in groups to circle the words that connect, and cross out the one that doesn’t. The students will come together and explain why their circles what they did and cross out the one they did. Example of Exclusive Brainstorming: Different Kinds of Liquids Mixtures: plural separable dissolves no formula Compounds chemicals combined new properties has formula no composition Solutions even mixture dissolved particles saturated/unsaturated heat increase Suspensions: clear no dissolving settles upon standing larger than molecules

18 The Frayer Model In the center if the Frayer Model, have students record a topic to be summarized. In the upper left corner they should record information pertinent to the topic, and on the right side information that is NOT important. The bottom left should be DRAWN examples and the bottom right bottom non-examples. Essential Characteristics Nonessential Characteristics Topic Examples Nonexamples

19 Human Bingo Start with a teacher-made bingo board (5 x 5 grid) with questions pre-written in the square. Students can have B-i-N-G-O markers (edible if you like). Read the answers to the questions and if students have the questions they can cover them up. Another version of this game can be played by having certain talents written on the bingo card and then have students walk around the room gathering signatures from any students who can do the described talent. Then student names are called and players will cover the talent if that student signed that square.

20 Human Continuum Place a line on the floor (using masking or carpet tape). Place arrows on both sides. Place a “A” for agree on one side by an arrow and a large “D” on the other end of the line by an arrow for . In the middle of the line put a “?” for “I don’t know. At this point you can ask students any questions about what they have been studying and have them take a position somewhere on the line. Then ask students to explain why they are standing where they are. T The closer to “A” the more they agree. The closer to “D” the more they disagree. Not sure will be right in the middle. A ? D

21 Inner or Outer Circle Ask ½ the class to stand in a large circle, facing into the circle, with 2-3 feet between students. Ask the other ½ of the class to form a circle inside of the 1st, and to face someone in the outer circle. Once circle stands still, while the other rotates. One group will have prepared content questions with them, the other will have to answer. The paired students ask and answer review questions, then one circle rotates so new partnerships are formed. This can continue until each member of a circle gets to pair with each member of the other circle. Switch roles so one circle now ask questions and the other answers. Questions should be written by students in advance.

22 Jigsaws Present a major topic to a large group first.
Break major topic into subtopics and assign to smaller groups. Example: Main Topic: Germany Subtopics: geography, culture, industry, political system Students will use materials and resources to gather and summarize information on that topic. (creating a product keeps them focused) Groups them come together and share their work with other groups and share their information/product. Essentially students are working together by focusing on one piece of the puzzle and then putting it together.

23 Learning Logs and Journals
There are many ways to set up a journal/learning log, but entries should be made several times of several days or weeks. First, provide a learning experience and ask the students to respond in some way in a journal. Next, provide students with a list of prompts that they can personally respond to. (prompts should take factual information and reapply it in a new and meaningful way) Example of a Learning Log/Journal prompt: “What did Britain’s loss in the revolutionary war do to the rest of the empire? How would British subjects feel if they saw other colonies get their freedom?”

24 Lineup Tell students that they are going to summarize a lesson by lining up to the criteria you are going to set. Give each student a large index card with information on one side. Have the student read it and then hold the card so the audience can read it. The audience will tell the students where to stand in lineup based on the content of their card. There should be 6-10 students in the lineup. When the students are lined up properly, a new group can come up to assure maximum participation. Example of Using a Lineup: A teacher wants to review fractions. Each student is given a fraction on a card and asked to lineup from the fraction with the least value to the fraction with the highest value.

25 Luck of the Draw Each day, students prepare a written summarization of what’s been covered in class or in their reading. The teacher picks one name from a hat and has the student read their previous day summarization. The rest of the class with critique it and the student whose name is picked will explain their summarization. Variations of this activity: If a student is shy and doesn’t want to speak, a classmate can read it for them or copies can be made and passed out to the class. Giving students a free pass to opt out of reading their summary may allow students one change to not present a summary if they feel their most recent entry is weak or lacking detail.

26 Moving Summarizations
Students will come up with hand/arm gestures to summarize events covered in class. Students will be presented with a list of content covered in class. Students will take turns coming up to the front and attempting to demonstrate a hand/arm movement for a piece of information and have them explain what the movement means. Repeat often and allow all students to practice their moving gestures. Example: If we were studying the American Revolution, and the fact we wanted to represent was the Stamp Act, a student might pound their fist in their hand to make a stamping motion on paper.

27 Multiple Intelligences
Review with students the terminology for multiple intelligences. Use the intelligences that seem the most appropriate for your content. Choose one or two activities per intelligence and have students engage in them during a unit of study. Examples of Multiple Intelligences in Summarizing: Linguistic: debates, word games, writing, tape-recording, conversations Logical-Mathematical: time lines, math problems, “what if” questions, brain teasers Bodily-Kinesthetic: hand gestures, sculpting, role playing, dance, pantomime Spatial: collages, diagramming, videos, visualizing Musical: rhythms, compositions, writing lyrics, rap songs Interpersonal: mentoring, leading, discussion groups, cooperative activities Intrapersonal: connect school to real life, personal interest centers, journal writing Naturalist: nature talks and videos, categorizing, caring for plants and animals Existentialist: ask BIG questions, create analogies, study beliefs, discuss philosophies

28 I better choose a good one!
One-Word Summaries Ask students to write one word to summarize a lesson’s content and then explain why they chose that word. As an extension, the class can record all the words and then narrow it down to its top three (or more or less) and the collectively rationalize why they chose these words. One word… I better choose a good one!

29 P-M-I Instruct students how to set up a P-M-I chart (shown below)
Give the students a statement to consider about something you’ve instructed them on. Example of a statement: “Students should go to school all year round”. Students will fill in the advantages of the idea (+), the disadvantages (-), and anything else that doesn’t fit into either into the interesting column. Students can share these charts and make any revisions as they are needed. Pluses (+) Minuses (-) Interesting

30 Partner A & B First present the material you are instructing to the students. After 15 minutes of instruction have students choose partners. One student is called partner “A” and the other is “B”. One student will begin my talking continuously for 1 minute about all the things that were just talked about in class. The other students sits quietly and notes/handouts may be used if the student has difficulty. Partners then switch. The next speaker must not mention anything covered by the first partner.

31 Point of View Ask students to retell or recount something they’ve learned about from a different point of view. To assist in this, break down a larger topic into key components, events, processes, etc. Students will then retell what they’ve learned through a different point of view. Students will share their point of view with classmates and explain their thinking. Example: Students can examine the impact of dropping the atomic bomb by tell the information from the point of view of the president of the United States, a resident of Japan, an American soldier, etc.

32 P-Q-R-S-T Explain what P-Q-R-S-T means:
P: Preview to identify main parts. Q: Develop questions to which you want to find the answers. R: Read the material, twice if possible. S: State the central idea or theme. T: Test yourself by answering questions (or teach the material to someone else) Use the “P” and “Q” as an anticipation guide for what you are doing. Use the “S” and “T” to summarize what they have learned.

33 RAFT This activity uses divergent thinking using the acronym R-A-F-T (role, audience, form, time). Present students with a RAFT table like the one below. Students will pick one element from each column and create and summary based on the format they choose. Role Audience Format Time (or Topic) Colonial Soldier George Washington Speech Present Day British Soldier Judge Newscast 1700’s Villager Children Travel Brochure Mid-winter King George Newspaper Writer Posted Flyers Summer Vacation

34 Save the Last Word for Me
Students must read a passage before an instruction and make notations if possible. Students will pick three or more sentences they want to discuss further. (This can be for any reason…anger, confusion, interest) Break students into smaller groups of 4 or 5 and allow students to take turns reading their sentences that were chosen. The rest of the group will comment on the sentence (agree, refute, support, clarify, comment, or question). The student who chose the sentence will get to offer their own commentary in the end, thus getting in the last word. The next person in the group goes. This continues until everyone has had a chance to share.

35 Share One; Get One Present your lesson like you normally would.
Have students draw a nine-square grid, or present them with a pre-made one. In any three squares ask students to record three skills, facts, or concepts from the lesson. Students will get up move around the room getting other students to fill in additional facts/skills/concepts in the remaining squares. Each student is only allowed to fill in one square of a classmate, but they may do that to as many classmates as possible. When a student has all nine squares filled in, they can sit down.

36 Socratic Seminars Students must first have information and a common frame of reference. This can be achieved through discussions, field trips, labs, lectures, readings, research, simulations, videos, etc.) Sit students in a circle. Students may have notes and materials on their laps for reference. Teacher begins by throwing the first questions to the group (a provocative question), then the teacher remains quiet. 1) Teacher only talks to keep discussion going. 2) To correct inaccuracies. Students will run the discussion, but must back up what they say with evidence. Finish with a strong closing question. Pre-teach: Students will need to know how to write good questions, create good follow-up questions, and may need to be given a list of questions to ask to keep the conversation moving.

37 Something-Happened-and-Then/Somebody-Wanted-But-So
Provide the following set of prompts (template below) to students before learning occurs. Something (independent variable) Happened (change in that independent variable) And (effect on the dependent variable) Then (conclusion) Students will create a summary sentence using the prompt for guidance. Students might read about a flood and write: “Heavy rains (S) washed away the soil (h), making it nearly impossible for plants to grow there (A) (T).” Students can also use the other prompt if summarizing fiction: Somebody (characters) Wanted (plot motivation) But (conflict) So (Solution)

38 Sorting Cards This can be used after you’ve taught something with multiple categories, such as types of government, states of matter, science cycles, etc. Place the categories on the board in separated columns. Pass out facts on index cards that fit into one of the categories. Allow students the time to work in groups to come up with the groupings for all the facts. Finally, have students address one fact at a time and have a group discussion about where it goes!

39 Spelling Bee de Strange
Create two teams like a regular spelling bee. Have them alternate spelling words aloud. Instead of using vowels, the student will substitute strange sounds or animal sounds that have been agreed upon by the class. After the word is spelled, students will be asked to discuss the meaning of the word. Example: Agree that “a” should be “achoo”, “I” should be “ribbit, ribbit”, “o” should be “oo-la-la”, and “e” should be “thump”. A student who is asked to spell “palindrome” would spell it: P – achoo – L– ribbit, ribbit – N – D – R – oo-la-la – M - Thump

40 SQ3R Reading summarization strategy that works best with a chapter or a research article. SQ3R stands for: S – Survey – students read headings, titles, first sentences, graphics for an overview. Q – Question – Students turn heading and titles into questions to form a purpose for reading. R – Read – Students read the text to answer the questions they made. R – Recite – Students cover their answers and recite the question while checking the accuracy of their answers. R – Review – Students write a summary of what they have read using their questions and answers, as well as the text to fill in any missing pieces.

41 Summarization Pyramids
Construct a pyramid of lines on a sheet of paper (see below). There should be 8 lines total. Provide prompts for students to write summarization answers on the line. Short answer prompts should be used for short lines and long answers for long lines. Example of a Summarization Pyramid Examples of Prompts to Use: Cause of the topic, one question you have, tools used in the topic, people the topic effects, a synonym for the topic, personal opinion of a topic, etc.

42 Summary Ball Present information in a standard lesson or format of choice. After the critical portion of the information has been delivered, have the students stand at their desks. Toss an inflated ball to a student. When the student catches it they have three seconds to state any fact, concept, or skill from the lesson. The student then passes the ball to another student and the process repeats itself. No information should be repeated. If a student can’t think of anything new, they pass the ball and just sit down.

43 Synectic Summaries After students have some experience with a topic, ask them to describe a topic focusing on descriptive words and critical attributes. Example of First Step: Topic: Romeo and Juliet Brainstormed Description: tragedy, parents, Montagues, Capulets, family feud,Verona, marriage, masked ball, Friar Lawrence, Nurse, Tybalt, Mercutio, poison, etc. Next ask students to compare their list to another topic that is completely unrelated. (Compare Romeo and Juliet to Items found in a Kitchen). This forces students to create analogies and think deeper about the meaning of what they wrote in their original list.

44 T-Chart/T-List The T-chart is divided into two sides: Main Ideas & Details or Examples Students should be introduced to some material to build background knowledge before a lesson. The teacher can provide students with either the main ideas filled in, or the details, depending on what you want the students to do. This established a structure for learning, and when it is done, can be an excellent study guide. Example of a T-Chart Main Ideas Details or Examples The Native Americans created many things we use today. 1. 2. The English led to the decline of the Native Americans in North America Corn was a major staple in the Indian Diet.

45 Taboo This is similar to the board game, where students must guess a phrase (such as latitude and longitude) without pointing, gesturing, or using any of that predetermined “taboo” words. To create taboo cards for study, use index cards. Write a key word or vocabulary word on top, separate them by a thick line, and then write 5-7 words below that the students would usually associate with the word. Example of Academic Taboo Cards To play you will need a timer and deck of homemade taboo cards. Divide the class into two teams, and have representatives come up and try to get their team to say the word. If a team member says a taboo word, the representative can use that word in their description. Representatives should have one or two minutes to achieve their goal. Decimals __________ Point Place value Base 10 Whole metric

46 Test Notes One or two weeks before a big test, announce to students that they’ll be able to use notes their test as long as the notes fit on a standard index card. Students can write small, include diagrams and use anything that will help them. (What will end up happening is students will review, eliminate, and prioritize their information and probably not even need the card when the actual test comes.

47 Think-Pair-Share Think
Ask students to reflect on a topic using art, writing, or just by sitting quietly. Give students specific prompts to keep them focused. (Record three things you learned today, How is this like _______) Pair After a few minutes, ask students to pair up (or assign pairs). One partner will share what they thought about while the other will ask clarifying questions or follow-up questions. Share The students will come together and share their thoughts with the class. Ways to share: Partners share the responses of their partners. Partners agree on one or two things collectively to share. The partners create some sort of product to share. Partners may provide information that relates to a new teacher prompt.

48 Traditional Rules-Based Summaries
Traditional or Rule-Based summarizations have four steps: Draw a line through anything that seems unimportant. Draw a line through anything that is redundant. Replace specific terms with general terms (“flies, honeybees, moths” are replaced with “flying insects) Determine a good topic sentence if one doesn’t exist. Way to Remember this Procedure: Use “T-RG-TS” or TARGETS T- Trivial (remove trivial materials) R- Redundancies (Remove redundant or repetitive information) G- Generalize (Replace list with general terms or phrases) TS – Topic Sentence (Determine a topic sentence)

49 Triads Begin by asking one student a question (after a unit of study).
This student will be the first of three (a triad) to orally engage with the content. Once the first student responds to the teacher question, keep your reaction to the response silent. Redirect the firs student’s answer to a second student and say “Do you agree or disagree and why?” When this student answers pass the same question to a third student and allow them to respond to the second student’s answer. Finally, return to the 1st student and allow them to add anything else. This activity encourages active listening and keep all students on standby thinking about what is said and what they want to say.

50 Unique Summarization Assignments
Simply put; provide alternative ways for students to create summarization products. Products can be written, artistic, drama, or any form of expression. Here are just a few ideas: Artisitc Oral Legal Tech Historical Musical Perform Written Science Book jackets CD covers Post Cards Puppet Shows Calendars Menus Maps Rubrics Commercial Poetry Songs Sermons Speeches Radio Plays Interviews Odes Rebuttals Certificates Contracts Resumes Wills Police Reports Job Applications Power Point Web Sites Spread Sheets Telegrams Biographies Diaries Family Trees Headlines Newspapers Slogans Time Lines Scores Requiems Raps Plays Scripts Satires Spoofs Monologues Sequels Soap Operas Flipbooks Jokes Riddles Magazines Stories Journals Evaluations Comparison Manual Field Guides Lab Instructions Weather Forecasts

51 Verbs? Change Them! Write down what you want students to summarize (How the moon effects the Earth). You can ask straight forward questions (prompts) or you can do something more… You can create different, more meaningful prompts if you use other verbs beside describe and list. Choosing different wording can lead to differentiating the summarization experience. Verb Suggestions Analyze… Contrast…… Find support for… Predict… Argue against… Create… Formulate… Rank… Assess… Criticize… Identify… Recommend… Argue for… Decide between… Imagine… Retell… Blend… Decide Between… Infer… Revise… Categorize… Deduce… Interpret… Show… Choose… Defend… Interview… Simplify

52 Word Splash Identify the content you want students to know and make a list of key vocabulary words and concepts associated with the content. The words should be written randomly and in all directions. Tell students you just wrote these words in no particular order (called a “Splash”). Present your lesson. Have students go back to the word splash and place the words in some logical order. Next, after the students have put the words in order, have them place the words into sentences and create a paragraph about what they learned today. This can be done in groups and each group can present and critique their paragraphs for accuracy, completeness, and information. Choose the best one.

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