xx MH5M1430N 2 29 Materials Preparation Materials Preparation Virgin Materials Extraction Discard Refurbish? ShipPackage Stages of the Life-Cycle Customer Use 5 1 5 4 5 5 3 Reactant #2 Mfr. Reactant #1 Mfr. Product Mfr.
Sludge (treated) Liquid Fertilizer Farms Cement; roads Fish farming Water Fly ash Heat Scrubber Sludge Gas Steam Sulfur A-S Bioteknisk Jordrens Sludge Steam Cooling water Statoil Refinery Lake Tissø Gas Waste water Yeast slurry Recovered nickel and vanadium Kalundborg, DK: Industrial Symbiosis Pathways Asnaes Power Station Pharmaceutical Municipality of Kalundborg District heating Wall-board Plant
Responsible Action may not equal Sustainability
Sustainability - Meeting the needs of people living on Earth while nurturing and restoring the planet’s life support systems - Board on Sustainable Development, 1999
What is it that we want to sustain? For whom? For how long?
Zambia’s Copper Cycle: One Year Stocks and Flows, 1994 Units: Gg/yr
China’s Copper Cycle: One Year Stocks and Flows, 1994 Units: Gg/yr
Computing Resource Stock in Use: Copper in Cities
Quantifying stock per capita Step 1: Determine content of major reservoirs Typical auto – 21 kg Cu Typical house – 200 kg Cu
Quantifying stock per capita Step 2: Multiply by the number of units in the reservoirs
Copper Stock per capita 170 kg Cu35 kg Cu North AmericaBeijing
Copper Stock and Copper Need 170 kg Cu North AmericaBeijing Global need 1.7 Pg Cu
Limits to Materials: Copper Stock and Copper Supply 170 kg Cu35 kg Cu North AmericaBeijing Global need Global resource 1.7 Pg Cu 1.6 Pg Cu
Final Thoughts “Responsible” action is a good thing Sustainability demands a broader perspective, and probably more effort, than responsible action The quantification of sustainability is a work in progress