2 What Are Enquiry Skills Questions? In standard grade history you have toanswer SIX types of enquiry skillsquestions which will ask you to look atdifferent types of evidence or sources.
3 Types of Questions ES1 - How useful/valuable/reliable is a Source? ES2 - Comparison of two sourcesES3 - Identifying an attitude/opinion in a source
4 Types of Questions ES4 - Placing a source (s) in a wider historical contextES5 – Selecting and organisinginformation from a source (s)ES6 – Writing a conclusion
5 ES1 – How Useful/Valuable/Reliable Is a Source? A useful MNEMONIC which can helpyou answer this question is:P urpose C onsistencyA uthorship A ccuracyD ate B iasD etail L imitationE xaggerationPADD CABLE
6 Source C is from the ‘Oban Telegraph’, 10th September 1880 The year 1880 is a truly great one in the historyofOban. The arrival of the Callander and ObanRailway has brought great prosperity to thetown. The opening of the rail route hasincreased trade and boosted local businesses,particularly our hotels and lodging houses.There has been no halt in the number of visitorsand the cry is ‘they still come!’.How useful is Source C for investigating the impact of railways in Scotland?
7 I pick coal at the coal face. I have done this Source D is an extract from the 1842 Children’s Employment Commission ReportI pick coal at the coal face. I have done thisfor six years. The seam is 26 inches highand when I pick I have to twist myself up.It is horrible sore work; none every come upfor meals. Pieces of bread are taken down.Six of the family work with father below;when work is good he takes away £1 to£1.25 a week.How useful is Source D as evidence of working conditions in coal mines?
8 In Source A John MacDonald from the island of Borerary, near North Uist, speaking in 1914 describes his family’s decision to emigrate.My father died in 1912 probably from a stomach ulcer….there was no doctor on the island. My mother realised there was no future for the family on Borerary. We could not support ourselves from the croft. So it was decided to join Uncle Dan in Canada. In British Columbia we met many other emigrants from Scotland….all of them spoke of the better living prospects that life in Canada offered them.
9 How useful is Source A as evidence of emigration from Scotland in the early 20th century? Source A is useful as evidence of emigration fromScotland in the early 20th century. It is a primarysource from 1914 when many Scots were emigratingto other countries (DATE). The source wasproduced by an eyewitness, John MacDonald whoemigrated to Canada (AUTHORSHIP). In the sourcehe describes his reasons for emigrating for example,his family could not support themselves on theircroft (DETAIL). However the sources does notmention other countries which Scots emigrated to such as Australia and South Africa (LIMITATION)
10 ES2 – Comparing Sources This type of question will usually start with words like:To what extent do Sources D and E agree/disagree/differ about…..?Compare the points of view in Sources D and E about?How far do Sources D and E agree/disagree about…?
11 How To Answer This Question Read the sources carefully and look for:Points they agree onPoints they disagree onPoints only mentioned in one source.Quote from the sources to support your answer.Remember that two sources may make the same point but use different words.Give an overall conclusion.
12 ES3 – Explaining Attitudes in a Source This type of question will usually start withwords like:Discuss the attitude of the author of Source B about…..?What does the author of Source A think about…..?What is the attitude of the author of Source B towards…?
13 How To Answer This Question In your own words, identify the main points in the source which show the author’s opinion.Finally in one sentence sum up what the author’s overall opinion is. Is it positive or negative and then explain why.Do not copy or quote from the source.You must only use the source to answer thequestion.
14 We, as women will do our share without Source A is from a letter by a woman, published in the Morning Post on 15th August 1917.We, as women will do our share withoutmurmuring and without complaint. Send thepacifists to us and we shall soon show them.The common soldier who goes ‘over the top’has the women of the British race behindhim: reliable and dependent.What is the attitude of the author of Source A towards conscientious objectors during the First World War.(4 marks)
15 Sample Answer The author of Source A praises women for helping the war effort withoutcomplaining. She thinks that women can showthe pacifists how to do the same. Shesupports the soldiers fighting in the trenches.Overall the author of Source A has a negativeview towards conscientious objectors and iscritical of them.
16 The British navy is to us a necessity, and, In Source B Winston Churchill considers the naval situation of both Britain and Germany.The British navy is to us a necessity, and,from some points of view, the German navy isto them more in the nature of a luxury. Our naval power involves British existence. It is existences to us; it is expansion to them. The whole future of our race and Empire would perish and be swept away if our naval supremacy was impaired.What is the attitude of the author of Source B towards the naval arms race(4 marks)
17 Sample Answer The author of Source B believes that the British navy is a necessity for the country buta luxury for the Germans. The authorsupports the view that Britain cannot existwithout its navy. The author warns that theGermans want a navy to expand. He isconcerned that Britain will perish if they didnot have naval supremacy. Overall the authorhas a negative view of the naval arms race and believes Germany is a threat to Britain.
18 ES4 – Setting a Source(s) In A Wider Historical Context This type of question will usually start with wordsLike:How fully ………..How far ………….To what extent.It will always be followed by the instruction……………You should use your own knowledge and give reasons for your answer.
19 How To Answer This Question Identify the main points in the source relevant to the question.Use recalled knowledge to identify points which the source(s) do not mention about the topic.Answer the question!!You cannot get full marks without recall.
20 Source B is about changes to voting between 1850-1911 In 1850 only 5% of the adult population hadthe right to vote. Voting was not seen as aright but as a privilege. Betweena number of laws were passed which gave thevote to a large proportion of working classmen. By 1885, around 66% of men now hadthe vote. In 1872 an act was passed whichintroduced voting by secret ballot.How fully does Source B explain the changes in voting introduced between 1850 and 1930? You should use your own knowledge and give reasons for your answer (4 marks)
21 Sample Answer: Source B explains the changes in voting introduced between to an extent. Between 1867-1885 a large proportion of working class men got thevote (SOURCE). In total by % of men couldnow vote (SOURCE). A secret ballot act was alsointroduced in 1872 (SOURCE). However the sourcedoes not mention that in 1918 women over 30 gotthe vote (RECALL) and ten years later in 1928 all women over 21 got the vote (RECALL).
22 After the National Health Service Act In Source A, a health visitor describes the impact of the National Health Service.After the National Health Service Actof 1948, dental care and glasses wereprovided free of charge. With theintroduction of free hospitals and GPs,people no longer had to pay for medicaltreatment.How fully does Source A accurately explain the reasons why the health of the Scottish population improved in the twentieth century? You should use your own knowledge and give reasons for your answer. (4 marks)
23 Sample Answer: Source A explains why the health of the Scottish population improved to an extent. People receiveddental care and glasses free of charge (SOURCE).People no longer had to pay for medical treatment(SOURCE). They could visit their doctor andhospital free of charge (SOURCE). However thesource does not mention that health alsoimproved because sanitation improved and peoplehad clean running water and toilets in their homes (RECALL).