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The altitude of Polaris = latitude North of Equator!

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The altitude of Polaris = latitude North of Equator!

West is earlier (AM), and east is later (PM)!

PRIME MERIDIAN 0O Longitude EQUATOR 0O Latitude

All Longitudes in NY are West All Latitudes in NY are North
Prime Meridian All Latitudes in NY are North Equator

NYS to the minute 1o = 60’

Contours (isolines)connect measurements in a field of equal value

REMEMBER: make “loops” or “take it off” and label!

The air-pressure field map represents a high-pressure system over the central United States. Isobars show the air pressure in millibars (mb). Areas of equal pressure may be found at locations A and C (3) C and D (2) B and E (4) D and E

What is a possible elevation, in meters, of point X?
(1) 55 (3) 68 (2) 57 (4) 70

The map shows sea-level air pressure in millibars for a portion of the eastern coast of North America. The air pressure recorded at point D was most likely 1014 mb (3) 1010 mb (2) 1012 mb (4) 1006 mb

TOPOGRAPHY – contours of land
Distance Legend (w/ directional) Contour Interval Sea level Slope (or Gradient) Rivers (& their direction)

What is the elevation of point A on the topographic map?
The small map identifies the New York State region shown in the topographic map. What is the elevation of point A on the topographic map? (1) 1,700 ft (2) 1,600 ft (3) 1,650 ft (4) 1,550 ft

When is it a hill and when is it a hole in the ground?
20 20 30 20 40 10 HATCHER LINES mean decreasing

What is the value of Point A if the contour interval is 25 m?
How about Point C? 60 m (51 – 74 m)

What is the CONTOUR INTERVAL of this map?
The topographic map of an island below measures elevations in meters and has a scale of 1cm = 2 km (1) 40 m (2) 10 m (3) 0 m (4) 20 m

What is the elevation of Point B?
The topographic map of an island below measures elevations in meters and has a scale of 1cm = 2 km (1) 40 m (2) 10 m (3) 0 m (4) 20 m

A What is the elevation of Point D? (1) 40 m (2) 10 m (3) 0 m (4) 20 m
The topographic map of an island below measures elevations in meters and has a scale of 1cm = 2 km (1) 40 m (2) 10 m (3) 0 m (4) 20 m Which point on this map MAY HAVE an elevation of 73 m? A

Elevations are in meters.
What is the elevation of points: A B C 70m 20m 30m D E 10m -10m (between 0m & -20m!)

When is it steep?

Lines are closer together so it is steeper!
The topographic map below shows two hills labeled A and B. The tributary streams labeled X and Y have the same volume of water. Lines are closer together so it is steeper! Which statement is best supported by the map? (1) Hill A is higher than hill B. (2) Stream X flows faster than stream Y. (3) Hill B is higher than hill A. (4) Stream Y flows faster than stream X.

DON’T FORGET THAT WATER ALWAYS FLOWS DOWN!!!

Look for V shape (water flows opposite)
Which way is down? Read contour values. Look for V shape (water flows opposite)

In which compass direction does the water flow in Long Creek?
SW

Which direction does Copper Creek flow?
78 . NW

The topographic map below shows a lake and two rivers.
In which direction does each of the rivers flow? (1) The Sapphire River and the Garnet River both flow east. (2) The Sapphire River and the Garnet River both flow west. (3) The Sapphire River flows east and the Garnet River flows west. (4) The Sapphire River flows west and the Garnet River flows east.

In which general direction is the stream flowing?
The topographic map below shows part of a stream. In which general direction is the stream flowing? (1) northeast (2) northwest (3) southeast (4) southwest

Profiles

Profiles look at an area from the side
(when traveling from one place to another) Contour lines look at an area from above (bird’s eye view)

What is the elevation of Point A
Draw a profile from Point X to Point Y 25

G R & Rate & Rate A D & Rate I & Rate E N & Rate T

Gradient = change in field value/distance = 20 ft/0.5 mi = 40 ft/mi
GRADIENT- The change in any value from one location to another (“over a distance”). 0 ft 10 ft 20 ft 20 foot elevation change .5 mile distance Gradient = change in field value/distance = 20 ft/0.5 mi = 40 ft/mi

Gradients are calculated for many things, like:
The gradient (or slope) of a hill. The temperature gradient between two states. The snowfall gradient between two cities. Same day in Minneapolis and Miami

Rate = change in value/time = 20 ft/10 min = 2 ft/min
RATE is the change in any value as time passes. 10 min time change 0 min 5 min 10 min 0 ft 10 ft 20 ft 20 foot elevation change Rate = change in value/time = 20 ft/10 min = 2 ft/min

Gradient = 0.056 mb/ Km Gradient = Change in field value/ distance
The map at left shows pressure measured in mb. The distance between the points is 500 Km. CALCULATE the pressure gradient. Gradient = Change in field value/ distance Gradient = 1004 mb – 976 mb/ 500 Km = 28 mb/ 500 Km Gradient = mb/ Km

Air moves like water. Big gradient = Fast Small gradient = Slow The STEEPER the AIR hill, the faster the wind moves from HIGH to Low pressure!

Which location most likely recorded the highest wind speed?
(1)A (3)C (2)B (4)D

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