Presentation on theme: "Social Complexity and The Need for Order"— Presentation transcript:
1 Social Complexity and The Need for Order First Civilizations:
2 CULTURE A people’s unique way of life Common Practices= work, food, clothing, tools, technology, sports, customsShared Understanding= language symbols, religion, values, art, political beliefsSocial Organization= family, class and caste, Relationships, economics, government, view of authority
3 Humans Interact with Nature Nomads- mobile people who moved from place to place in search of food.Hunter-Gatherers- nomads whose food supply depended on plantsAgricultural Revolution A.K.A. Neolithic revolutionShift from gathering to food-producing one of the greatest achievements in human history)grow crops (cultivation)raise animals (domestication)******** this led to the development of civilization
4 Civilization Develops Five Characteristics:Advanced CitiesSpecialized workersComplex InstitutionsRecord KeepingImproved Technology
5 Ancient River Civilizations Fertile Crescent, Indus River Valley, China, and Africa
6 Sumer Becomes the Babylonian Empire Where- Mesopotamian Region between the Tigris and Euphrates River “Fertile Crescent”World’s first EMPIRE- the bringing together of peoples from different nations and cultures under one ruler
7 Characteristics of Mesopotamian societies: PolytheisticKing was an absolute monarch-Based on Agriculture and TradeSlavery was common
8 Babylonian Empire Most important ruler= Hammurabi Hammurabi’s Code= first written system of law (an eye for an eye)-Applied to everyone, but punishments were based on social classWhy would Hammurabi want a written code of laws?
9 Preamble to Hammurabi’s Code “…to bring about the rule of righteousness in the land, to destroy the wicked and the evil-doers; so that the strong should not harm the weak…”What does this say about the role of government?
10 Ancient EgyptLOWER EGYPTUPPER EGYPTNubia down here
11 Egyptian Society Pharaohs= Egyptian “god” kings Government= Theocracy Pyramids= tombs for their pharaohsReligion= polytheisticWomen could own propertyContributions= hieroglyphics (writing), papyrus (paper) calendar, math, medicine
12 Mediterranean Traders Minoans, Phoenicians, and Development of Writing
13 Minoans 2000-1400 BC Known for art and culture Influenced Ancient GreeceRelatively peacefulWomen seem to have held high ranksSacrifices to gods were commonEnded (probably) due to natural disasters that weakened their defenses
14 PhoeniciansPowerful Mediterranean Traders- city states & colonies connected through trade routesTraded wine, weapons, metals, ivory and slaves, dyeAlphabets- symbols to represent sounds
15 Importance of Writing Cave paintings Earliest form of writing Primarily based on religionRecorded events of daily life
16 Importance of Writing Hieroglyphics Egypt Symbols stand for words or soundsRosetta Stone
17 Importance of Writing Cuneiform Syrians and Babylonians “wedge”- shaped tool used on soft clayFew artifacts have survived
18 Importance of Writing Phoenician alphabet Symbols represent sounds Easier to learn- increased literacyAdopted by the GreeksLater the Arabic (our alphabet)
20 Polytheism & Monotheism Poly- manyMono- oneZoroastrians- first group to practice monotheism
21 Zoroaster- Persian philosopher ? = Why should so much pain and suffering exist in the world?Zoroastrianism- monotheistic religionEarth is a battle ground between good and evilPeople take place in the struggleTheir god will judge people at the end of timeIdeas of Satan and angels are found in Judaism, Christianity, and IslamSome in Iran and India still follow this faith
22 Hebrews: Terms to know Monotheism- belief in one God Canaan- location of Hebrew settlement between the Jordan River and Med. Sea first settled in 1800 B.C.Torah- 1st 5 books of the Hebrew BibleAbraham- “father” of Hebrew people- wandered between Canaan and Egypt
23 The CovenantsFirst= Abraham promised to obey God and God promised to protect him and his descendantsSecond= The Ten commandments The basis of civil and religious laws of JudaismExodus- Hebrews fled Egypt under the direction of Moses, wandered for 40 years, then settled in Canaan into 12 tribes
24 1020 BC – 922 BC United under three kings: Saul, David, and Solomon Solomon was most powerfulBeautified JerusalemBuilt a temple to hold the Ark of the Covenant (held the Ten commandments)Problem= high taxes and forced labor led to division after his death
25 Captivity and Invasions Tribute- taxes paid by a weaker nation to a stronger in the hopes on ensuring that the stronger would not attackAssyria conquered Israel’s capital (Samaria)Babylonians conquered Judah’s capital (Jerusalem)Empires- Persians, Greeks and Romans
26 Changes on the Indian Subcontinent Aryan Invasion, Religion, and the Golden Age
27 INDUS RIVER CIVILIZATIONS Natural barriers for protectionLargest Mountains (Himalayan Mountains ) to the northLarge desert to the eastRiver ValleysGanges flows into the Bay of Bengal and the Indus flows into the Arabian SeaCarry water for irrigation and silt for fertilization
28 Indus Valley Maps This is it! Ganges River FertileRiver Valley Indus River
29 More about the Indus Valley Sometimes called Harappan civilizationsVery advanced cities (grid plans, raised land, plumbing system)Language= over 400 symbols- hard to decipherTrade and religion are believed to have been importantProbably ended due to drought or damaged soil and Aryan invasions
30 The Indo-Europeans Nomads from between the Black and Caspian seas- Horses, Chariots, animal herdersDivided into different language groupsEnglish, Sanskrit, Persian, Spanish, GermanWhy might they have migrated???
31 The Aryans Migrated into and shaped modern day India Vedas- volumes of sacred literature including prayers, hymns, spells and ritual instructionsPastoral people- counted their wealth in cows
32 Aryans: The Caste/Varna System Social structureVery strict- no upward movementThree original social classesBrahmins- priestsWarriorsPeasants and tradersInteraction with others led to moreShudras- laborers who did work the Aryans did not want to doVarna= skin color
33 Aryans: Epics and Religion Epic= long narrative poemsMahabharata- retell struggles Aryans encountered as they migrated southwardPolytheistic
34 Terms to know about Hinduism Moksha- Hindu belief in release from this worldReincarnation- rebirth of a soul or spirit until moksha is achievedKarma- good or bad deeds
35 Terms to know about Buddhism Buddha- Enlightened oneEnlightenment- wisdomNirvana- release of selfishness and painFour Noble TruthsSuffering and sorrowSelfish desires cause the sufferingEnd desires will end sufferingFollow the eight fold path
36 Hinduism, Buddhism and other religions develop Workbook page 9:Complete the chart for Hinduism and Buddhism focusing onOriginKey beliefsSocietal beliefsLeader or founder (may not be available)“view” of death or “after-life”Use the text-book to complete the chart- finish for homework
37 Warm-up ActivityYou are a merchant selling cloth in a market. A customer walks into your shop and you fear he is one of the emperor’s inspectors or tax collectors. He whispers to you, “will you spy on other weavers and report if they are paying the proper taxes or selling inferior cloth?” You contemplate your options knowing that you will be paid four years’ earnings for your service.What will you do?Is it right for the government to spy on its own peopleWhat kinds of tensions might exist in this society- where neighbor spies on neighbor?Is there a time when spying is ethical?
38 India’s First Empire Mauryan Ancient India- area was divided into small kingdomsChandragupta Maurya was a great military general who seized power and began the Mauryan Empire.Chandragupta fought the Greek general Seleucus I (Alexander’s general who inherited this land) and defeated him.
39 Chandragupta’s Accomplishments Raised a great army600,000 foot soldiers30,000 cavalry9,000 elephants (ancient tanks)How did he pay for this stuff…TAXES- extremely high taxesFarmers paid up to ½ the value of their crops to the king
40 Chandragupta’s Government Relied on his adviser to assist himTough policies to hold the empire togetherSpying on the peoplePolitical assassinationLarge bureaucracyDivided the empire4 provinces- headed by a royal princeLocal districts- officials assessed taxes and enforced laws
41 Chandragupta’s Successor His son ruled for 32 years and then his grandson, Ashoka, ruled.Characteristics of Ashoka’s ruleFirst- followed grand-dad’s ideasAdopted Buddha's ideas of peace to all beingsReligious toleration and nonviolenceImproved communication- roads
42 India’s Second Empire Gupta Empire Leaders- Chandra Gupta- rose through marriageSamudra Gupta- expanded through 40 years of conquestChandra Gupta II- spread of arts, religion and science
43 Daily Life in the Gupta Empire Most lived in small villages and were farmersExtended families worked together to grow cropsDrought was common- tax on water and required 1 day work to maintain irrigation for the villageCraftspeople and merchants lived in towns above their shops
44 Trade Spreads Indian Religions and Culture BuddhismFocus in past= strive for NirvanaBuddha did not desire to be worshipped- this was after his deathNew focus= good works in place of Nirvan- this offered salvation to allHinduismFocus in past= polytheism, priests had contact with the godsNew focus= trend toward monotheism, which helped it have growth and more appeal
45 Achievements: Art & Literature Poetry- most famous poet was KalidasaWriting schools- famous for Tamil poetryDrama- especially in southern IndiaDance- still survive today
46 Advancement: TradeRich in resources- spices, gems, woods, pearls, etc to trade with othersLand-trade= built trading posts along the silk roads and acted as middle-men between the east and westSea trade= traveled to the east, brought back spices and goods, met Roman traders in India AND traded African goods with the eastIncreased trade led to the rise of banking and charging of interest rates
47 Achievements: Astronomy Sparked by the expansion of tradeStars were used for navigationBorrowed calendar- seven day week based on the sun from the GreeksTime- divided days into hours (also from the Greeks)Believed the earth was round (eclipse showed this)
48 Advancements: Mathematics Invented modern numerals, decimal and zeroCalculated pi to 4 decimal placesCalculated the length of the solar year to close to accurate measure
49 Advancements: Medicine Medical guide= descriptions of more than 1,000 diseasesMedicinal guide= 500 plants used as medicinesPerformed surgeriesPossible gave injections of medications
50 Chinese River Civilizations Unification, Culture, Dynasties and Empires
51 CHINESE RIVER CIVILIZATIONS Grew along riversChallenges= disastrous floods, lack of trade due to geographic locationnatural barriers (mountains, deserts, etc) offered some protection from invasions
52 Ancient Chinese Culture Writing= 50,000 charactersFamily= center of Chinese societySociety was divided into nobles and peasantsAncestor worship= ancestors could bring good fortune or disaster to the family
53 Governmental Organization Mandate of Heaven= belief that a ruler had the right to rule granted by the gods (divine approval), unless he did something evil or wickedDynastic cycle= used to justify conquests or overthrow of poor leaders when they lost the mandateFeudalism= king gives some leadership to nobles in areas as a way to control and unify the large empire
54 The Unification of China Confucius-lived during the decline of the Zhou dynasty (disorder and violence)Desired a return to peace and moralitySocial order, harmony and government could exist if society was organized and regulated by a code of conduct between:Ruler and subjectFather and sonHusband and wifeOlder and younger brothersFriend and friend
55 More about Confucianism and other systems Filial Piety= respect for parents or ancestors- devoting self to parents for your lifetimeLegalism- believed that order could be restored by a highly efficient and powerful governmentBelieved in controlling ideas and actionsStressed rewards for obedient followers and harsh punishment for the disobedientYin and Yang- search for harmony in nature and relationshipsYin- cold, dark, soft and mysteriousYang- warm, bright, hard and clear
56 Qin DynastyEmerged and used legalism to subdue warring states and control noblesGovernmentAutocracy- government with unlimited power that uses it in an arbitrary mannerforced noble families to serve in the government and seizing their landCompleted the Great Wall of China- forced labor!
57 Down fall of the Quin Dynasty BeliefsStrengthen the trunk, weaken the branches under the Qin Confucian ideals were crushed, millions of their followers were murdered, books were burnedWeaknessesFell to the Han (peasants) who revolted due to the hatred they had because of the forced labor required by the dynasty on the Great Wall of China
58 China: The Han Emperors Unrest, ineffective leaders and civil war- small kingdoms trying to get more land and powerMilitary leader: Liu Bang came to power and restored order and began the Han Dynasty that lasted more than 400 years.The most influential dynasty in china- today some people call themselves: People of the Han.
59 Society Under the Han Emperor- strong central government King- GovernorState officials- noble scholarsPeasantsArtisans- MerchantsSoldiersSlavesWhat is different about this when compared to other societal structures?
60 Beliefs and Government The emperor: semi-divinehad connections to heavenServed as a link between heaven and earth (mandate of heaven)Government Policieslevied BIG taxesforced labor for 1 monthforced military service for 1 month
61 Confucius and the Government Why: 130,000 govt employeesWhat: “Gentlemen should practice, reverence, respect, generosity, truthfulness, diligence and kindness.”How:To apply for a job you had to pass a test about Confucius’ teachingsTo pass you had to study ConfuciusAnyone could do this- stayed in effect until 1912!
62 Han Technology Main invention- paper around 105 AD Results of paper= improved education, more books, accurate govt recordsAgriculture- important b/c of populationCollar harness- horse became more productiveDouble-bladed plowOther stuff: wheelbarrow, hydro-power mills to grind corn
63 Han Commerce & Culture Government created monopolies Salt mining, forging iron, minting coins, brewing alcoholSilk mills- most valuable commodity was SILKSilk Roads- started in China- went through Asia to India- went on to Rome.Role of Women- Devoted to families, mostly uneducated- some wealthy women did receive educations, others became nuns
64 The Fall of the Han Dynasty The Han ruled for 200 years, had a brief interruption for 23 years then ruled for another 200 years.Reasons for the fall:Political instability- the poor were overtaxed and overworkedPolitical instability- the people were trying to gain powerEconomic instability- large land owners had to pay little taxes- land was divided up among generations.The empire broke into three rival kingdoms
65 The Tang Dynasty Lasted from 618-907 Empress Wu Zhao named herself emperor and expanded the empire into the rest of China and Korea- regained land lost after the fall of the Han DynastyShe is the only woman in Chinese history to do this!
66 Tang Accomplishments Strong Central Government Expanded Roads and the Grand CanalPromoted TradeImprovements in agricultureRevived the Confucian Civil Service examination system
67 The Fall of the Tang Dynasty Taxes were increased due to the large government around 700Invading Muslim ArmiesBorder attacks and internal rebellionsChina was divided into separate kingdoms ruled by warlords
68 Taizu Reunites China- the Song Dynasty Lasted about 3 centuries (960 – 1279)Never able to reunite all of China, but set up a government in southern chinaAccomplishments: Strong economy and large economic growth
69 Prosperity and Innovation During the Tang and Song Dynasties Science & Technology- Block printing (Tang) then movable type (Song), gunpowder- first used to scare away evil spirits, magnetic compass- allowed for more sea trade, porcelainAgriculture- rice cultivation (two crops each year)Trade and Foreign Contacts- Guarded silk roads, built large port cities, and influenced other groupsPoetry & Art- paintings of natureAcupuncturePaper Currency
70 Changes in SocietyA new upper class, gentry, emerged who achieved status through education and civil serviceStatus and role of womenWere always subservient to menTreatment was worse in citiesCustom of foot binding- display of wealth and status
74 The Americas and Africa Societies, Achievements and Migration
75 Geography of the African Continent Second largest in the world- 4,600 miles from east to west and 5,000 miles from north to southNarrow coastline, plateau, water falls, rapids, few harbors or natural portsSahara Desert- Stretches from the Red Sea to the Atlantic Ocean- Covers an area ½ the size of the US- Unsuitable to sustain human life- Hampers movement*** This kept them isolated from Europeans.
77 Africa’s Early Inhabitants Nomadic, hunter-gatherers (Pastoralists)Agriculture improved the way people lived:Growing food allowed permanent sheltersIncreased food supplies allowed settlements to form complex societiesPrimary family groups= parents, children, grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins
78 TraditionsReligion- Animist believe in one creator, spirits are present in plants, animals or natural forcesGriots helped keep traditions alive and recorded history through story-telling and passing from parent to childSyncretism- blending of Christian, Muslim and Traditional beliefs.
79 International Culture- Religion Traditional beliefs= one god- kings were descendents of and AnimistsNew religion= Christianity adopted by King EzanaNew religion= Islam spread to the coasts through trade
80 The Bantu MigrationsMigration= permanent move of people from one country or region to anotherPeople migrate for various reasons which fit into three categoriesPoliticalEconomicEnvironmental
81 The Push-Pull Factors Causes of migration also fit into two groups Push- reasons why people leave a region- usually negative- drought, unemployment, persecutionPull- reasons why people go to a region- usually positive- abundant resources, job opportunities, religious freedoms.
82 Effects of MigrationMay be positive: cultural blending, shared ideas or technology, improved quality of lifeMay be negative: clashes between groups, depletion of resources, unemployment, poverty, etc.
83 Historical Migration- The Bantu One way experts trace migration is through languageThe Bantu languages (more than 900) are spoken by 1/3 of all AfricansSwahili- blending of African-Bantu and Arabic languagesBantu means “the people”
84 Bantu Migrations, cont.Reason they migrated (probably) due to slash and burn agriculture- depletion of soil or droughtMigration route- South-east from the center of Africa along the Congo RiverSpread the use of slash and burn agriculture and iron tools
85 Early Mesoamerican Civilizations Mesoamerica stretches from central Mexico to northern Honduras.Olmec- first civilization builders; 1200 B.C. in southern MexicoBuilt pyramids, statues, and monuments to worship a variety of nature godsEstablished trade network in MesoamericaOlmec civilization fell by 400 B.C.
86 Culture of the Americas Maya Inca AztecGovernmentEconomyReligionArtRise and Fall*Mini-Project Break- Mesoamerican Scrapbook