Today’s Goals / Objectives Content Objectives: Know four features of SIOP component, Interaction: ◦F16 - Frequent opportunities for interaction ◦F17 - Group configurations ◦F18 - Wait time ◦F19 - Key concepts clarified in L1 Understand fair grading in cooperative learning classrooms Language Objectives: In small groups, read and discuss answers to frequently asked questions about effective interaction / cooperative learning.
“School is a place where young people go to watch old people work.” John Goodlad
“A long time ago, there was no such thing as school, and children spent their days learning a trade, a phrase which here means ‘standing around doing tedious tasks under the instruction of a bossy adult.’ In time, however, people realized that children could be allowed to sit, and the first school was invented.” Lemony Snicket
F16 - Frequent opportunities for interaction / discussion Research shows that classes are characterized by excessive teacher talk (99) When students were asked to respond, it was usually only simple recall statements Students learn more when participating fully, discussing ideas/information (102) ELs need the most opportunities to practice using English language Encourage elaboration – “what do you mean by,” “What else…(103)”
In many schools, ELs are grouped in low ability groups regardless of ability. In “low” groups, teachers… ◦…talk more; ask lower-level questions; cover less; ◦…spend more time on skill and drill; provide fewer opportunities for leadership & independent research; ◦…encourage more oral than silent reading; teach less vocabulary; allow less wait time; ◦…spend twice as much time on behaviors F17 – Group Configurations
In cooperative learning, we encourage interaction and we need a signal to get students to refocus on the teacher. 1. Raise hand 2. Focus fully on me – I need your eyes and ears – no talking, no working 3. Signal others
Characteristics of Effective Interaction Structures 1. Organizes Classroom Instruction – A structure is a strategy that describes how teachers and students will interact with curriculum. 2. Is Content-Free and Repeatable – Structures are not tied to any specific curriculum but can be used repeatedly to create new learning experiences in ANY class (WITH current lesson plans!). 3. Implements the Basic Principles of Cooperative Learning (PIES) – the inclusion of PIES is what makes cooperative learning truly effective.
P I E S Positive Interdependence Question 1: Are students on the same side? Question 2: Does the task require working together? Individual Accountability Question 3: Is individual, public performance required? Equal Participation Question 4: Is participation approximately equal? Simultaneous Interaction Question 5: What percent of students are overtly interacting at once?
Team Building: creates enthusiasm, trust, and mutual support, which in the long run, leads to more efficient academic work. 1. On your own, rank each of the adjectives on the “How Do You Most Want to Be?” card (10-29). 1 = what you most want to be and 10 = what you least want to be. 2. After each person has finished ranking, they will be given two minutes to share with the group.
1. To the extent possible, students are seated in teams of four. 2. Teams of four allow pair work (face partners, shoulder partners – not diagonal partners) 3. Teams of four increase variety. How are students grouped?
1. Heterogeneous teams are recommended for stable based teams. 2. The heterogeneous team is mixed in achievement level, gender, and ethnicity. 3. Heterogeneous teams maximize the potential for cross-ability tutoring, positive race relations, improved gender relations, and efficient classroom management. How are students grouped?
AA BB Face Partners LM L H HM 1 4 3 2 Shoulder Partners
Teams of Four.... (7.2-4) Allow Pair Work Avoid Odd Man Out Increase Variety Four ways to group students: 1.Heterogeneous – For most cooperative learning 2.Homogeneous 3.Random 4.Student Selected Remember: 1.Social skills / Behavior 2.Special needs 3.Gender 4.Ethnicity 5.Socioeconomic backgrounds 6. 2 nd language
Write down the characteristics of teachers that are “traditional,” those who use “group work” and those who use “structures / cooperative learning.” After writing your responses, take turns responding orally. in RoundRobin, students take turn in their teams. To start the RoundRobin you need to know who will share first.
Teacher A Traditional Instruction Teacher B Group Work Teacher C Structures (Cooperative Learning) Achievement Gains Social Skills Required Participation Active Engagement ManySome All None Q&A: Some Some Guided Practice: All Teacher A, B, C Comparison For each box above answer the question, “Which students benefit?”
Efficiency in Action Simultaneous Interaction Increases Engagement and Participation StructurePercent Actively Engaged at Once Student Participation Time Per Hour Whole Class Q & A RoundRobin RallyRobin 1 in 30 (3.33%) 1 in 4 (25%) 1 in 2 (50%) 2 minutes per student 15 minutes per student 30 minutes per student
Efficiency in Action Time for Three-Minute Student Presentations StructureRequired Class Time Student Presentation Student Presents to class. Timed RoundRobin Student presents to teammates. Timed Pair Share Student presents to partner. 90 minutes 12 minutes 6 minutes
Rationale for Cooperative Learning 1. Cooperative learning appeals to students because they are social, enjoy working with their peers, and need and like to move. 2. Last year, 32% of referrals at Eagle Rock were caused by students who were trying to get peers’ attention 3. 24% were by students trying to avoid individual tasks / activities.
Benefits of Cooperative Learning 1. Fun, active engagement, 2. Stimulating the brain, 3. Everyone has a role, 4. Time flies, 5. Active not passive, 6. Fewer discipline problems, 7. Increased self-esteem, 8. Sense of belonging / community, 9. Better use of time 10. All students learning from one another 11. Improved social skills, 12. Generation of more ideas 13. Employment skills: communication, interpersonal skills, teamwork, analytical skills, flexibility, adaptability, 14. Leadership skills: respect, kindness, responsibility, citizenship, 15. Improved race relationships.
Assigning Grades in a Cooperative Learning Classroom
Don’t assign Group Grades. Why? Group grades tell us little or nothing about individual students. Group grades undermine motivation. Group grades don’t provide good feedback. Group grades are a poor method of communication to parents, scholarship committees, employers, etc.
Don’t assign Group Grades. Why? Group grades convey the message that grades are partially a function of forces entirely out of students’ control. Group grades are not fair. Group grades create resistance to cooperative learning.
Don’t assign Group Grades. Why? Group grades could be challenged in court. Group grades fail to “certify” students correctly for advanced or remedial courses. Group grades violate individual accountability.
The Big Five Structures 1. Organize Classroom Instruction 2. Content-free and Repeatable 3. Implements the basic principles of cooperative learning (PIES) Please refer to the handout: 1. Rally Robin 2. Timed/Pair/Share 3. Rally Coach 4. Stand up hand up pair up 5. Round Robin
Start with very simple structures like RoundRobin, RallyRobin, and Timed Pair Share When you are really comfortable with one structure, begin using a second structure. Build these in to already existing lesson plans.
Last Structure of the Day: Fan and Pick 1. Cut out the flash cards on the yellow card stock. 2. Mix up the cards and place them in a pile. 3. Person 1 holds and fans out the cards 4. Person 2 picks a card & reads the question 5. All students search the text to find the answer 6. Person 3 answers the question. 7. Person 4 verifies that the answer is correct. 8. Switch roles each time you answer a new question. 9. Stop after ___ minutes.
“Talent wins games, but teamwork and intelligence wins championships.” Michael Jordan
When you get a chance, take a cooperative learning workshop taught by the district’s instructional coaches. It’s great information and makes teaching even more fun! Each E-log should clearly reflect the last class session. Points may be earned for the following: Case Study Student – BLUE font. Successes / Aha Moments – GREEN font. Student “data” for use in instruction– PINK font. Differentiation Strategies – ORANGE font. Cooperative Learning / Interaction – PURPLE font. Academic Vocabulary– BROWN font. Building Community– NAVY font. Obstacles/Questions– RED font.