Presentation on theme: "Measurements and Calculations"— Presentation transcript:
1 Measurements and Calculations The SI SystemMeasurements and Calculations
2 Système Internationale d'Unités (SI) an internationally agreed upon system of measurements.Decimal system (all conversions based on multiples of 10)SI consists of seven base units.Base Unit: defined unit in a system of measurement that is based on an object or event in the physical world, and is independent of other units.
3 1 milliliter is the same volume as 1 cubic centimeter. 1 mL = 1 cm31 milliliter is the same volume as 1 cubic centimeter.1 mL of water has a mass of approximately 1 gThe mass of 1 milliliter of water is approximately 1 gram.1 L of water has a mass of approximately 1 kgThe mass of 1 liter of water is therefore approximately 1 kilogram.1 m3 of water has a mass of approximately 1 tThere are 1000 liters in a cubic meter, so the mass of 1 cubic meter of water is approximately kilograms or 1 metric ton.
4 Mass of a nickel is 5 gA US nickel weighs 5 grams, and a penny weighs 2.5 grams.A typical doorknob is 1 m highAlthough there's no precise standard for doorknob heights, they're often about 1 meter above the floor.
5 The diameter of a CD or DVD is 12 cm A CD or DVD is 12 centimeters (120 millimeters) across. The diameter of the center hole is 15 millimeters.1 ha is 1002 m21 hectare is square meters, equivalent to the area of a square 100 meters on a side. A football field is about 100 meters long, so imagine a square the length of a football field on each side, and that's 1 hectare.
6 Base UnitsThe SI base unit of time is the second (s), based on the frequency of radiation given off by a cesium-133 atom.The SI base unit for length is the meter (m), the distance light travels in a vacuum in 1/299,792,458th of a second.The SI base unit of mass is the kilogram (kg), about 2.2 pounds
8 MANY DERIVED UNITS Quantity Unit Abbreviation Speed = Length/Time meter/second m/sVolume =(Length) 3 (meter) 3 m 3Density = Mass/Volume kg/m 3 kg/m 3Acceleration = speed/time m/s 2 m/s 2Force = Mass x Acc kg m/ s 2 N (Newton)Pressure = Force/Area kg/m s 2 Pa (Pascal)Energy = Force x Length kg m 2 / s 2 J (Joule)
10 Converting between SI Units Use the chart like this:1 prefixed unit = exponential value of the prefix1 cm = 10-2 m1 nm = 10-9 m1 Mm = 106 mExample:
11 Measurements of Length Base Unit: the MeterCentimeterMillimeterNanometerMicrometerPicometer
12 Measurement of Mass Measurement of Time Base Unit: the kilogram (the gram is too small) only prefixed base unitMeasurement of TimeBase Unit: the second
13 Measurement of Temperature A measure of how hot or how cold something isA quantity that determines the direction of heat flow: warmer to coolerThree temperature scales commonly used:CelsiusKelvin (absolute)Fahrenheit
14 To Convert F to C 1.8 degrees F = 1 degree C F = 32 + (1.8 x degrees C)Example: Convert 22 degrees C to degrees FC = F – 32/1.8Example: Convert 98.6 degrees F to degrees C.
15 To Convert Celsius to Kelvin 0 degrees C = 273 KK = C + 273C = K -273Examples:Convert 100 degrees C to Kelvin.Convert 475 K to degrees CConvert K to degrees C.
16 Volume and Density Calculations Derived UnitsVolume and Density Calculations
17 Volume Base Unit : m 3 Not practical because it is very large Commonly used: dm 3 Also called “THE LITER (L)”1 dm = 10 cm1 cm 3 = 1mL1 dm 3 = 1 LNOTE: 1 dm 3 = (10 cm) 3 = 1000 mL= 1000 cm 3 = 1LExample: Calculate the volume of a cube that is 3.30 cm on each side.
18 Density Mass to volume ratio The mass of a unit volume density = mass/volumed = m/v
19 ExamplesCalculate the density of a piece of glass with a mass of g and a volume of 2.95 mL.Calculate the thickness of an aluminum foil cm long and cm wide. The mass of the foil is g. The density of aluminum is 2.70 g/cm 3 . (HINT: We consider the Aluminum foil to be a rectangular solid).
20 Dimensional Analysis (Factor Label) Method of calculating using the unitsMakes word problems and chemistry calculations easy!Any unit can be converted to another by using appropriate conversion factorsStart unit x final unit = final unitstart unitConversion factors (equalities written as fractions)
21 ExampleOn a picnic, 162 students are each given 2 hot dogs. If there are 9 hot dogs per pound, priced at $ 4 per 3 pounds, what is the cost of the hot dogs?Note that the following conversion factors can be obtained from the text of the problem:1 student = 2 hotdogs9 hot dogs = 1 lb$4 = 3 lbsTo begin solving the problem, start with a known and keep your goal in mind:Note that all the units (except $) cancel out!