8 The eagerness to behealthy and attractiveThe desire to move in respectable circlesThe hunger for food
9 How to judge whether a statement is true or false.
10 Is the writer or speaker a recognized authority in the particular field? Can the statement be presented as a personal point of view or as the considered opinion of a group?Are there a sufficient number of cases of sufficient evidence to justify the conclusion drawn?
11 Has the truth been somewhat slanted or deliberately distorted by means of evasions, half-truths, or omissions?Does the statement depend on reason or solely on emotion to appeal to reader or listener?Is the source of the statement a reliable corporation or individual?
13 Bandwagon It uses such phrases as: It suggests an imagery vehicle carrying leaders of a cause or a candidate who has a large following.It uses such phrases as:“Everybody’s doing it!”“Join the crowd.”“This is the latest and best for you.”
14 BIG LIEAn outrageous falsehood captures our attention and somehow staggers some people into believing it.A master at propaganda for evil, Adolf Hitler, said, “The bigger the lie, the sooner people swallow it.”
15 Glittering Generalization A statement that jumps from a few cases to a conclusion that is supposed to fit all cases.It is called “glittering” because it is falsely attractive.Using empty words without much substance such as “best”, “new”, “#1” or to describe the benefits or uses of something
16 Name CallingThis is a way of smearing an opponent. Calling him names can damage his reputation or arouse suspicions about his character.Claiming that thecompetition is inferior in some way
17 Plain FolksThis is the corny kind of appeal to the man in the street made by identifying either a person or a product with his particular locality or country.Appealing to the average, bluecollar, hard working consumers.“I’m one of you folks, born and raised in these mountains and I can still shuck corn with the best of you.”
18 The opposite of plain folks Snob AppealThe opposite of plain folksAims to flatter those who would like to satisfy their ego by assuming that they are better than the rest of mankind in looks, wealth, taste, position, etc.Appealing to upscale dreams or ASPIRATIONS; not necessarily an expensive product, but appealing to the rich OR those who want to be seen that way
19 APPEAL TO INDIVIDUALITY Celebrating a unique style; rebelling against the normOpposite of bandwagonBe different!!!
20 Hasty GeneralizationWhen a claim states or implies that things are all one wayEXAMPLES:Women are bad drivers.Oklahomans are Republicans.Gay people are Democrats.Gun owners refuse toconsider new laws that wouldmake our streets safer.
21 Sometimes a failing student blames the school or a teacher. ScapegoatA scapegoat is a person carrying the blame for others.Sometimes a failing student blames the school or a teacher.
22 “Slogan” A slogan is a catchword or phrase loaded with emotion. A type of oversimplification.Often tells you little about the product itselfSlogans are usually cleverand easy to remember.
23 “If the famous person uses it, it must be good!” TestimonialA statement endorsing a product or an idea when signed by a prominent personA popular favorite carries undue weight when it is used to sponsor something outside his particular field.“If the famous person uses it, it must be good!”
24 TransferThis device transfers the good impression we have of something we already know to something else that we don’t know.By associating the two we merge our personal reactions without examining the unknown person or thing by itself.“Product A tastes home baked, and we know things that are home baked are supposed to taste better than store bought, so we will like Product A too!”
25 Guilt by AssociationSome charities have been fraudulent. Therefore, charities must be frauds.Adolf Hitler was a vegetarian. Vegetarianism must be evil.Osama bin Laden was opposed to the invasion of Iraq. Anyoneopposed to the invasion ofIraq must be a terrorist.
26 BEGGING THE ???Assumes something is true when it is in need of proof… when the claim is included in the evidence so nothing is provedSince I'm not lying, I must be telling the truth.Roger Drudge's book on politics is the best; it says so inside.
27 RED HERRING SLIP SLIDE… DISTRACTION… SMOKE When a rebuttal doesn't address thequestion and/ or draws attention away fromthe central issue in an argument or discussionFrom the practice of distracting hunting dogs (usually in Fox Hunting) by dragging a smelly, salt-cured Red herring across the trail of the animal/fox they were pursuing to throw the hounds off the scent.EXAMPLE:Q: Did the President have an affair?A: "He's very busy at the moment with the Middle East Peace talks, and has no time for silly accusations. If this bill isn’t signed within the next 12 hours a whole country could lose it’s way of life. Do you want a whole country of men, women, and children to suffer? Do you hate foreigners? Do you hate children?
28 Straw ManAttacking an opponent's weaker argument rather than his strongest OR ignoring a person's actual position and substituting a distorted, exaggerated or misrepresented version instead.EXAMPLE:Many who are for abortion like itsconvenience. But this is a human lifewe're talking about, and people need to beconcerned with more than convenience."Senator Jones says that we should not fund the attack submarine program. I disagree entirely. I can't understand why he wants to leave us defenseless like that."
29 Card StackingA one-sided case presents only evidence favoring its conclusion, and ignores or downplays the evidence against it. In inductive reasoning, it is important to consider all of the available evidence before coming to a conclusion.Example:You have observed several white swans; then you might conclude:All swans are white.You've spoke about having seen the children's prisons in Iraq. Can you describe what you saw there? The prison in question is at the General Security Services headquarters, which was inspected by my team in Jan It appeared to be a prison for children—toddlers up to pre-adolescents—whose only crime was to be the offspring of those who have spoken out politically against the regime of Saddam Hussein. It was a horrific scene. Actually I'm not going to describe what I saw there because what I saw was so horrible that it can be used by those who would want to promote war with Iraq, and right now I'm waging peace.Source: Massimo Calabresi, "Scott Ritter in His Own Words", Time, 9/14/2002
31 Faulty Dilemma When only two options are given when many choices exist COLLEGE SONICEither you're for the Republican plan, or you're socialist and un-American.
32 Equivocation Using the same word with two different meanings EXAMPLES: A feather is light.What is light cannot be dark.Therefore, a feather cannot be dark.The sign said "Fine for Parking Here," so since it was fine, I parked there.Liberal politicians favor a liberal lifestyle of free love and drugs.
33 “If my hair looks nice, all people will love me." Non sequiturLatin for “it does not follow”The conclusion does not followfrom the argumentEXAMPLE:“If my hair looks nice, all people will love me."However, there is no real connection between your hair and the love of all people.Advertising typically applies this kind of 'deduction'.
34 Ad Hominem Latin for “argument against the person” An attempt to negate the truth of a claim by pointing out a negative characteristic or belief of the person supporting it.EXAMPLES1. Einstein claims relativity is correct Einstein is Jewish3. Hence relativity is false.Bill: "I believe that abortion is morally wrong."Dave: "Of course you would say that, you're a priest."Bill: "What about the arguments I gave to support my position?"Dave: "Those don't count. Like I said, you're a priest, so you have to say that abortion is wrong. Further, you are just a lackey to the Pope, so I can't believe what you say."
36 Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc Latin for “after this, because of that”Often shortened to POST HOCIf one event happens after another, then the first must be the cause of the second.EXAMPLES:A rooster always crows prior to sunriseTherefore: the rooster’s crowing causes the sun to rise.1. Ice cream sales elevate greatly each June.2. The number of common colds lower greatly each June.3. Therefore: higher ice cream consumption cures the common cold.
37 EuphemismMaking something sound better than it is. Using a synonym that is a better sounding term than the reality.Ex. A police officer was asked why he left the police force. His response was, “The chief and I had a difference of opinion.” In actuality, the officer was fired.Ex. Gasoline prices are expected to be adjusted to match our economic status. In other words, gas prices are going up dramatically as the economy is going down.
38 IN TOTAL…22 Types of Propaganda TransferGuilt by AssociationBegging the QuestionRed HerringStraw ManCard StackingFaulty DilemmaEquivocationNon-SequiturAd HominemPost-HocEuphemismBandwagonBig LieGlittering GeneralizationName CallingPlain FolksSnob AppealIndividual AppealHasty GeneralizationScapegoatSloganTestimonial