2 Television Introduced to the masses at the NY World’s fair in 1939 Conflicting opinions about tv: the positivesHarmless pastimeEducational toolImportant part of culture
3 Television The negatives: Presents dangerously unrealistic picture of the worldPromotes violenceWaste of time
4 Tv statistics % of households with at least 1 tv: 99 # of tv sets in avg. U.S. household: 2% of U.S. homes with 3+ tv sets: 66# of hours per day tv is on in avg. U.S. home: 6 hrs. 47 min.% of Americans that regularly watch tv while eating dinner: 66
5 Genres and Program Types Purpose of tv#1 to gather an audience for advertisersAlso:EntertainmentInformation/ education
6 Genres and Program Types Because tv programs serve to gather an audience for advertisers (yes, you are viewed as a commodity):There has been little change in programming since the beginning of tvNetworks tend to stick with what has worked in the past – success copyingWhen a certain type of program is successful on 1 network, others rush to produce a similar oneAccounts for waves of popularity of certain types of shows from season to season
7 Genres and Program Types Very few series last more than 3 yrs; many cancelled during 1st yr.Dependable programming:Soap opera: daytime tv dramaOriginated on radio shows; soap companies were often sponsorsCrime dramaCSI, NCIS, Law and OrderReality tvFirst shows: The Real World; CopsCurrently 1 of the most-watched genresDancing w/ Stars, American Idol, The Voice, etc.
8 Television and Stereotypes The application to an entire group of the qualities of a limited sample of that groupExamples of stereotypes:How does tv perpetuate stereotypes?How can we dispel stereotypes?
9 MTV and New Production Techniques Created in 1981 as an all-music video channel for young audiencesMTV strives to use capabilities of video in new waysRapid-fire editingHand-held camera movementsSynchronizing video edits to musicIntegration of digital production technology/effects
10 Broadcast Television 1350++ stations in the U.S. Channels 2-13 (VHF – very high frequency)Channels (UHF – ultra high frequency)# of channels available in any given area increased dramatically:Cable networksSatellite dishes
11 LicensingTv stations are licensed by the FCC to serve the “public interest”License must be renewed every 3 yrs
12 4 Major NetworksNearly 85% of all tv stations affiliated with (not owned by) 1 of the following:CBS: Columbia Broadcasting SystemABC: American Broadcasting CompanyNBC: National Broadcasting CompanyFox: Fox Broadcasting CompanyThe most profitable stations are those affiliated with 1 of the above networks
13 Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) A tv station that does not belong to a major network is either an independent station or a member of PBSPBS stations carry cultural and educational programmingSupported by gov’t grants, donations from foundations and corporations, and contributions from individuals and groups
14 PBS Not as dependent on advertising $ as commercial tv networks PBS stations do present messages about underwriters or supporters
15 Independent StationsStations that do not belong to a major network or PBSProgram movies, local sports, and syndicated tv shows
16 Networks and Local Stations Networks are not television stations; they do not broadcast programs – they supply programs to local tv affiliates via satelliteLocal stations must fill their own programming when networks do not supply itNetworks provide programs free to the affiliates and are paid for the advertising time they can sell during the program
17 Cost of AdvertisingThe cost of advertising depends on the popularity of the programThe more viewers, the higher the cost of advertisingA small amount of time during each program is left for the local station to sell to local advertisersThis advertising constitutes main source of income for local stations
18 Cable TelevisionBegan in the late 1940’s as a solution to a problem in rural areasPeople paid fee to have tv set wired by cable to master antennaGood reception without expense of rooftop antennaFrom isolated rural areas, tv moved to citiesTall buildings and airplane interference impacted receptionA few cable systems offered subscribers additional channels brought in from nearby cities as added service
19 Cable tv Offers more channels than are possible with broadcast tv Greatest benefit of cable tv:It offers a large # of channels to everyone
20 Television RatingsTv networks have more competition and find fewer viewers in prime timeNielson RatingsDetermine a program’s futureNielson Ratings measure:How many people watched a particular show in a particular time slotWhat % of households with a tv watched show xHow show x is rated amongst other shows aired that week
21 Nielson RatingsThe higher the rating, the higher the cost of advertising, and the higher the revenue $$$$$$
22 Up for Debate …Has television had a positive or negative effect on people and culture over the past 70 years?Discuss!!!!