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Sarah Warren, Danielle Goren-Hill, Ethan Braun, and Emily Rubenstein

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1 Sarah Warren, Danielle Goren-Hill, Ethan Braun, and Emily Rubenstein
Central Middle East CENTRAL MIDDLE EAST Sarah Warren, Danielle Goren-Hill, Ethan Braun, and Emily Rubenstein


3 Palestinian Exile With the creation of Israel in 1947 Palestinians grew hatred for Israel. Palestinians and Arabs made a call for Israel to be destroyed. Palestinian Army attacks Israel from Jordan and Syrian

4 PLO And Yassir Arafat Palestinian Liberation Organization formed.
Yasser Arafat believed to be Anti-Semetic because of his hatred for Israel. After 1967, P.L.O. turns from conventional war fighting to terrorism. 197 Olypmic Massacre, plan hijacking Expelled from Jordan in “Black September”

5 Intifada Victims of violence.

6 Intifada and Terrorism
Palestinians frusterated at at lack of progress of PLO against Israel. Riots destroy property street riots breakout rocks thrown at Israeli Police in (stoning) Palestinian-Israel agreement made in Oslo. Hamas rejects Oslo, continues to fight on destruction of Israel. Oslo Palestinian terrorism on Italian ship; American killed. U.S. embassy bombed.

7 Palestinian Authority In Palestine
Yassir Arafat is leader No specific civil code religious Islamic Ared To become a full government in the future Civil rights violations Rivalry with Hamas Palestinians divided. To fight, or to make peace? Libya Punished for sponsoring terrorism Pan Am terrorist bombing with 244 dead over Scotland.


9 Western Influence Britain used to have control of Jordan, called Transjordan. Britain dropped control over this area. Due to lack of natural resources Jordan is/was dependent on foreign aid.

10 King Hussein’s Reign Came into power at a age 16 due to family difficulties. Arab (Palestinian) – Western problems. Threats and relations with the Arab nationalism. 1967 War

11 Hussein’s Death Had a 46-year reign
Died at age 63 of Cancer on February 4, 1999 Were more than 40 kings [at the funeral], presidents, prime ministers, and other leaders,former leaders and other dignitaries. The largest gathering leaders since the funeral of Yitzhak Rabin

12 Hussein’s Son: The New King and Jordan’s Future
He is King Hussein’s son and his name is Abdullah. He is 37 and is a novice when it comes to politics and he has little knowledge about international affairs. He says he will continue the policies of his father.


14 Nasser: Arab Messiah Rise and Power
In favor of Arab nationalism. 1956 war against England, France, and Israel. Lost Arab unity, but won control over Suez canal. Nasser becomes hero to Arab world.

15 Nasser’s Downfall Forms United Arab Emirates. Alley of Soviet Union, enemy of U.S. Wants to expel Israel and West from region. Defeated decisively in 1967 war with Israel, humiliated. Nasser dies on September 28, 1970. Arab world loses unity.

16 Anwar Sadat ( ) November Sadat signs Peace Treaty with Israel. Becomes ally of United States. Tourists pile into Egypt, Egyptians become associated with West. 1973- Yom Kippur War, victory for Sadat. Arab pride restored. yo

17 Mohammad Hosni Mubarak
Loyal supporter of Sadat and 1973 war hero Continues Sadat’s pro-West policy, peace with Israel Worked effectively with Muslim extremists who threaten to overturn the government and kill him. Egypt threatened by overpopulation, poverty, and Islamic fundamentalism.


19 Hafiz Assad- The Lion Of Damascus
Assad was born on October 6, 1930 to a family of respected Alawites. In February of 1969 Assad is declared ruler of Syria. Hafiz Assad also supports radical and violent Muslim groups that are based in Lebanon and Syria. Political control has affected most aspects in his life.

20 1973 War Called Yom Kippur War because it started on Yom Kippur on October 6, 1973. It was a surprise attack by Egypt and Syria against Israel. The reason for the attack was for recapturing the territories lost in the 1967 War. ( Sinai by the Egyptians, and the Golan Heights by Syria) It lasted for approximately three weeks

21 Syria Ancient Syria had many conquerors: Egypt (1500 BCE) and the Turks (1516 CE) 20th Century control vied for between French and English for Syria Formed United Arab Republic with Egypt from 1961- Present a dictatorship under Hafiz Assad 1999 peace talks with Israel- want the return of Golan Heights (which were lost on 1967 war.)

22 Current Peace Negotiations
Since May 1999 elections in Israel when Barak was elected as prime minister, renewed Israeli efforts brought about two recent important meeting with Syria Both weere held near Washington D.C. in the presences of U.S President Cinton as facilitator While the third round of meeting was postponed there is high hope that Israel and Syraai will sign a peace agreement after Israel gives back the Golan heights.

23 The Central Middle East Focus Group
Our Special Message: Thank you for watching and listening to our presentation. We appreciate your courtesy and hope that this was informative. Thank You The Central Middle East Focus Group


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