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2 11-1 Intelligent Support Systems Copied from:

3 11-2 Intelligent Systems and Artificial Intelligence Artificial intelligence and intelligent behavior Comparing artificial and natural intelligence Conventional versus AI computing Commercial artificial intelligence field

4 11-3 Artificial Intelligence and Intelligent Behavior Artificial intelligence (AI) is concerned with two basic ideas. First, it involves studying the thought processes of humans; second, it deals with representing those processes via machines (computer, robots, etc.).

5 11-4 Objectives of AI To make machines smarter Understand what intelligence is To make machines more useful

6 11-5 Intelligent Behavior Learning or understanding from experience Making sense of ambiguous or contradictory messages Responding quickly and successfully to new situations Using reason to solve problems and direct actions effectively

7 11-6 Intelligent Behavior Dealing with complex situations Applying knowledge to manipulate the environment Recognizing the relative importance of different elements in a situation

8 11-7 Artificial and Natural Intelligence AI Advantages over Natural Intelligence AI is more permanent AI offers ease of duplication and dissemination AI can be less expensive AI is consistent and thorough AI can be documented

9 11-8 Artificial and Natural Intelligence Natural Intelligence Advantages over AI Natural intelligence is creative Natural intelligence enables people to benefit from and directly use sensory experiences

10 11-9 Artificial and Natural Intelligence Natural Intelligence Advantages over AI Natural intelligence enables people to recognize relationships between things, sense qualities, and spot patterns that explain how various items interrelate Human reasoning is always able to make use of a context of experiences

11 11-10 Commercial AI Field Expert systems (ES) Natural language Robotics and sensory systems Computer vision and scene recognition Intelligent computer-aided instruction (ICAI) Machine learning Handwriting recognizers

12 11-11 Expert System (ES) An ES is decision-making software that can reach a level of performance comparable to - or even exceeding that of - a human expert in some specialized problem area.

13 11-12 Benefits of ES Increased output and productivity Increase quality Capture of scarce expertise and its dissemination Operation in hazardous environments Accessibility to knowledge

14 11-13 Benefits of an ES Reliability Increased capabilities of other computerized systems Ability to work with incomplete or uncertain information Provision of training

15 11-14 Benefits of ES Enhancement of problem solving capabilities Decreased decision making time

16 11-15 Other Intelligent Systems Natural language processing (NLP) and voice technology Neural computing Fuzzy logic Intelligent agents

17 11-16 Natural Language Processing and Voice Technology Applications of natural language processing (NLP) Speech (voice) recognition and understanding Advantages of speech recognition Voice synthesis

18 11-17 Advantages of Speech Recognition Ease of access Speed Manual freedom Remote access Accuracy

19 11-18 Benefits and Applications of Neural Computing Potential to provide some of the human characteristics of problem solving –Recognition of patterns and characteristics Fault-tolerance Generalization Adaptability

20 11-19 Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) - Business Applications Tax fraud Financial services Loan applications evaluation Solvency prediction New product analysis Airline fare management Prediction

21 11-20 Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) - Business Applications Evaluation of personnel and job candidates Resource allocation Data mining Foreign exchange rate Stock, bond, and commodities selection and trading Signature validation

22 11-21 Fuzzy Logic Fuzzy logic is a technique, developed by Zadeh, that deals with uncertainties by simulating the process of human reasoning, allowing the computer to behave less precisely and logically than conventional computers do.

23 11-22 Intelligent Agent (IA) Intelligent agents are software entities that carry out some set of operations on behalf of a user or another program, with some degree of independence and in so doing, employ some knowledge or representation of the user’s goals.

24 11-23 Major Tasks Performed by IA Information access and navigation Decision support and empowerment Repetitive office activity Mundane personal activity Search and retrieval Domain experts

25 11-24 Applications of IA User interface Operating systems agents Spreadsheet agents Workflow and administrative management agents Software development Negotiation in electronic commerce

26 11-25 Emerging Technology: Virtual Reality (VR) How does it work VR and the internet/intranets VR and decision making

27 11-26 How Does VR Work

28 11-27 Managerial Issues Cost-benefit and justification Heightened expectations Acquiring knowledge System acceptance System integration

29 11-28 Copyright  1999 John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner in unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Son, Inc. Adopters of the textbook are granted permission to make back-up copies for his/her own use only, to make copies for distribution to student of the course the textbook is used in, and to modify this material to best suit their instructional needs. Under no circumstances can copies be made for resale. The publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein.

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