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Challenges in Sustainable Hydrogen Production David Wails Low Carbon Research Group Johnson Matthey Technology Centre.

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Presentation on theme: "Challenges in Sustainable Hydrogen Production David Wails Low Carbon Research Group Johnson Matthey Technology Centre."— Presentation transcript:

1 Challenges in Sustainable Hydrogen Production David Wails Low Carbon Research Group Johnson Matthey Technology Centre

2 Johnson Matthey Speciality chemicals company focused on its core skills in catalysis, precious metals, fine chemicals and process technology Environmental Technologies Precious Metal Products Fine Chemicals and Catalysts

3 Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Process Technologies Low Carbon Technologies Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells Fuel Cell catalysts Membrane Electrode Assemblies Syngas (hydrogen) catalysts Davy Process Technology Research Materials Fuel Processing Components Hydrogen generation, storage & separation

4 Hydrocarbon ChemicalsFuelsPower JM - World Leading Expertise in Syngas Catalysts, Purification, Process Technology JM Supplies 40% of world’s hydrogen production catalysts

5 Hydrogen Generation Pathways Hydrogen Production Technology Conventional SMR On site H 2 Generators Distributed Fuel Processors Electrolysis Photochemistry Photobiology Gasification Biofuels Waste Nuclear Solar thermal Reforming Coal

6 Hydrogen – Here and Now A catalyst supplier’s perspective Current hydrogen generation route (SMR) is on a large scale Most hydrogen utilised on site (ammonia,methanol production, HDS, GTL) Hydrocarbon sources are well understood A multitude of novel, compact fuel processors are being developed for fuel cell applications Advanced engineering and system designs require suitable catalysts to demonstrate the concepts Suitable catalysts are often not scaleable or commercially available Renewable hydrocarbon sources present additional challenges There is no ‘one-size fits all’ catalyst soluti on

7 Fuel Processing Catalyst Requirements Industrial plant Small scale Distributed Portable/military Auxiliary/back-up power Residential stationary Industrial stationary Forecourt reforming On-site hydrogen Stranded gas GTL Conventional syngas Large scale GTL Litres H 2 /day Tonnes H 2 /day

8 Syngas Clean-Up Requirements 8 PEMFC PAFC SOFC + MCFC Combustion and Reforming Water Gas Shift Selective Oxidation

9 Routes to Low Carbon H 2 Efficient hydrocarbon processing including biofuels, waste, biomass, biogas, emerging hydrocarbon sources (e.g. glycerol) integration with carbon capture and storage Indirect renewables storage of renewable electricity through electrolysis Direct renewables photocatalysis, biogenicH 2, high temp solar

10 Syngas from Biomass Existing catalysts and adsorbents Acid gas “polishing” with sulphur and chloride guards Sweet and sour shift catalysts 10 Additional syngas conditioning requirements Tar removal Dependent on gasifier design and operation Gasification of a variety of feedstocks Waste plastics, urban waste, lignocellulosics, oils/fats, starch/sugar

11 Solar Hydrogen Coated ZnFerrite materials for water-splitting redox cycle Coated PGM catalysts for solar enhanced steam reforming

12 Hydrogen Research Needs Step-change production processes New processes >> new catalysts for current processes Low Carbon H 2 Efficient hydrocarbon processing (including biogas sources, integration with CCS) Indirect renewables (eg – storage of renewable electricity) Direct renewables (eg – photocatalysis, biohydrogen, high temp solar) Distributed reforming: efficient, compact, robust, ‘waste’ feedstocks Integration of biochemical and thermochemical processes

13 Hydrogen Research Needs Purification Reformate: effective desulphurisation, non-pyrophoric CO-removal, hydrocarbon clean-up H 2 : distributed separation and compression Storage Where is the next big idea in solid state H 2 storage ? Optimising for the end application: packaging, heat integration Large scale storage options: organic carriers, hydrocarbons, slurries ?

14 Conclusions Hydrogen generation via traditional routes is well established technology Syngas usually produced and used on site Use of sustainable feedstocks with current plant flowsheets will have additional processing and purification requirements Emerging hydrogen opportunities/markets have different requirements Pure hydrogen rather than syngas Requires additional purification Centralised / distributed reforming Storage and transportation issues Sustainable / low carbon opportunities CCS Renewable feedstocks 14

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