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11-1 The Work of Gregory Mendel

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1 11-1 The Work of Gregory Mendel
Flora I

2 Genetics Genetics – the study of heredity
Essential to understanding biology

3 Mendel Mendel knew the following:
Each part of each flower produces pollen (anther) Other portions produce female reproduction cells The two join and fertilization occurs Gametes – sex cell Fertilization – male and female reproduction cells join to form a new cell True-breeding – if allowed to self-pollinate, they would produce offspring identical to themselves

4 Genes and Dominance Mendel studied plant traits
Trait – specific characteristic of an organism Ex: seed color, plant height, etc. Mendel studied 7 traits: Seed shape Seed color Seed coat Pod shape Pod color Flower position Plant height

5 Cont. Mendel crossed plants with these seven contrasting traits and studied their offspring Parents – called “P” generation Offspring – called “F1” generation A cross between parents with different traits are known as hybrids

6 Mendel’s Two Conclusions
Biological inheritance is determined by factors that are passed on from one generation to the next These traits are called genes Genes – sequence of DNA that codes for a specific protein thus determining the trait Some genes have contrasting forms called alleles Alleles – one of a number of different forms of a gene

7 Cont. Mendel’s Two Conclusions
The principal of dominance states that some alleles are dominant and others are recessive An organism with a dominant allele for a specific trait will always exhibit that form of that trait. Recessive alleles will only exhibit that trait when the dominant allele is absent Ex: Mendel’s Experiment

8 Segregation Did the alleles present in the P generation disappear from the F1 generation? Mendel allowed 7 kinds of F1 hybrid plants to self-pollinate producing an F2 generation See page 265

9 Law of Segregation when any individual produces gametes, the copies of a gene separate, so that each gamete receives only one copy. A gamete will receive one allele or the other Each F1 plant produces two types of gametes Ex: Tt x Tt

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