2 Enterprise Architecture What is Enterprise Architecture?
3 IT responding to Business needs Traditionally, IT's response to business requirements has been to give each user what they wanted, if possible when they wanted it.Applications were built according to the specifications of a particular constituency of users without much thought for the impact on the rest of the enterprise.And as long as the business operated as a collection of discrete business processes, that was okay.Unfortunately, this approach spawned a collection of discrete applications, with discrete and individual data formats.When the business needed to integrate those ‘silo’ applications to support changing business processes or to integrate application and off the shelf products, chaos ensued.
4 IT response to ChaosThe response of IT was to become more precise, creating technology standards that appeared arbitrary to the business, requiring elaborate time consuming development processes and detailed documentation for new systems and changes to existing systems.While IT believed that they were imposing a formal discipline on a chaotic system, the business could only see that these stringent requirements stifled innovation and made it difficult for the business to be agile in response to sometimes rapidly changing market requirements.
5 Business response to IT Faced with seemingly arbitrary standards, it was not uncommon for the business to go its own way and develop applications in isolation from ITThis led to further chaos and complexities within the enterprise that interfered with the ability of the business to get services from the IT organisation.
6 Business Strategy What is the Business Strategy? What is the target operating model ?How do you link the Business Strategy to IT execution?New technologies such as SOA are not enoughBusiness agility and flexibility are importantIncreasing costs need to be controlledSilo Applications need to be consolidation
7 TrendsThe current trend in organisations is a renewed focus on business process management (BPM).This is now allowing business users to make immediate changes to their business process models (BPMN), combined with the technology to implement these changes in near real time, to a process orchestration and execution environment (BPEL).This trend drives better business and IT alignment and the ability to trace the business strategy straight through to the business execution.
8 Business Trends Improving business processes Controlling increasing operating costsSupporting competitive advantageImproving profits
9 Strategic Priorities Delivery projects that enable business growth Linking Business and IT strategies and plansBuilding business skills in the IT organisationBuilding IT skills in the businessDemonstrating the business value of ITMeasuring service levels and performance
10 Technology Investments Business Intelligence applicationsSecurity ArchitectureMobile workforce applicationsCollaboration technologiesCustomer sales and self service applications
11 Strategy & EALeading organizations use a business strategy driven architecture approach that focuses on translating the key components of the business strategy into a future state vision and an architecture road map they can implement.Enterprise architecture is integrated with other strategic planning disciplines, such as programme/project and application portfolio and managementThe Enterprise Architecture ensures that the long-term vision of the business is preserved as the enterprise builds new business capabilities and improves on old ones.
12 Current to TargetEnterprise Architecture is an iterative process that produces four major deliverables:A future-state Enterprise Architecture reference model that realises the business strategyCurrent-state Enterprise Architecture model (just enough)A gap analysis that identifies the shortfalls of the current state in terms of its ability to support the strategies of the enterpriseAn Architecture Roadmap that defines the initiatives required to migrate from the current state into the future state
13 Enterprise Architecture as Strategy An Enterprise Architecture driven out of the business strategy provides the enterprise with the highest degree of alignment between the business and IT.The concept of Enterprise Architecture has expanded well beyond the traditional notion of technology architecture.It is now the architecture of the whole enterprise.
14 Definition of Enterprise Architecture A definition of Enterprise Architecture is addressed in 2 constituent parts – enterprise and architecture.The Open Group defines ‘enterprise’ as follows:An ‘enterprise’ is any collection of organisations that has a common set of goals and/or a single bottom line. In that sense, an enterprise can be a government agency, a whole corporation, a division of a corporation, a single department, or a chain of geographically distant organisations linked together by common ownership.Gartner define ‘architecture’ as follows;The grand design or overall concept employed in creating a system, as in the architecture of a city or a customer information system; also "an abstraction or design of a system, its structure, components and how they interrelate"A family of guidelines (concepts, policies, principles, rules, patterns, interfaces and standards) to use when building a new IT capability.
15 Purpose of Enterprise Architecture Enterprise Architecture is designed to ensures alignment between the business and IT strategies, operating model, guiding principles, and the software development projects and service delivery.By taking a global, enterprise-wide, perspective across all the business services, business processes, information, applications and technology, Enterprise Architecture ensures the enterprise goals and objectives are addressed in a holistic way across all the application development projects and their deployment into production.
18 Architecture Domains Architecture Domains Strategy, Vision & PrinciplesBusiness ServicesBusiness Process ArchitectureOrganisation ArchitectureInformation ArchitectureApplication ArchitectureTechnology ArchitecturePerformanceThese architecture domains are interdependent and are developed simultaneously to ensure that the architecture reflects the optimal alignment of IT and the execution environment in support of the business strategy and target operating model.
20 Strategy, Vision & Principles Concerns the motivation behind the Enterprise Architecture answering the ‘Why’ questions.Addresses these in terms of the Business and IT Strategies, Target Operating Model, Vision, Principles, Goals and Objectives.
21 Business ServicesConcerns the Products and Services that are offered and sold to customers and partners.Addresses these in terms of Business Services, Contracts and Value provided.
22 Process ArchitectureConcerns the transformations that are performed in the Enterprise answering the ‘How’ questions.Addresses these in terms of the Business Processes, Activities, Workflows (Value Streams), Scenarios and Business Events.
23 Organisation Architecture Concerns the people perspective in the Enterprise answering the ‘Who’ question.Addresses these in terms of the Locations, Business Actors (people and organisation units), Business Roles and Business Functions (responsibilities), from both an internal (staff, partners) and external (customers, agents) perspective.
24 Information Architecture Information Architecture includes the knowledge, information and data that flows through the business processes and the data that is accessed and stored by applications.Answers the ‘What’ question in the Enterprise Architecture.The ‘What’ refers to the ‘things’ or ‘assets’ which the enterprise needs to know about, use or create.
25 Application Architecture Addresses the ‘When’ question in the enterprise, in terms of interaction and dialogue.Answering the ‘How’ question in terms of the calculations and algorithms needed to implement the transformations in the enterprise.
26 Technology Architecture Technology Architecture defines the technologies and infrastructure that support the applicationsAddresses the ‘Where’ questions in the enterprise in terms of nodes, networks, devices, system software, communication infrastructure and persistent data storage.
27 PerformanceWhereas the Strategy, Vision & Principles provides the future direction for the Enterprise, the Performance Architecture is concerned with whether the goals and objectives have been achieved.These are addressed in terms of status, business results, performance metrics and measurements.
32 The Enterprise Architecture is An analysis tool to provide abstraction and modelling capabilities at all levels and perspective of the enterprise architectureA planning tool to translate strategic thinking into architecture roadmap of future development and integrationAn analysis tool to clearly plot the key relationships and dependencies between the business services, business processes, applications and technologyA decision-making tool to provide a framework for evaluating-, selecting and justifying strategic development options and architecture decisionsA design tool to provide the required support, in the form of industry best practice design approaches, patterns, guidelines, and reference modelsA change management tool to provide a framework for synchronising and coordinating development activities across multiple development projects and initiativesA governance tool to provide a sole architecture design authority and a master repository for the target enterprise architecture, and a single architectural blueprint of principles, standards, patterns, policies, guidelines, reference models, reusable assets and templatesAn alignment tool to provide an essential bridge between business strategy and IT delivery, and to furnish business managers with a non-technical over view of the enterprise architecture and how it supports the operating model
33 Benefits of Enterprise Architecture Enterprise Architecture will deliver significant improvements in the following areas:The ability to rapidly adjust and adapt to new business circumstancesThe efficient and strategic use of applications & technology across the merged legal entities, and realisation of the Target Enterprise ArchitectureThe management of information/data and knowledge as a corporate assetThe alignment between IT and business for planning and execution purposesThe transparency, impartiality, quality and objectivity of architecture decision makingThe management of change based on a clear understanding of its impactThe optimisation, cost effectiveness, efficiency of the IT solutionsThe reduction of application complexity, and increased reuse of existing IT assetsThe reporting of performance results, and auditing of changes
34 Risks of no Enterprise Architecture Failure to implement an Enterprise Architecture will present the following risks:Inability to rapidly respond to challenges driven by business changesLack of focus on enterprise requirementsLack of common direction and synergiesIncomplete visibility of the current and future target enterprise architecture visionInability to predict impacts of future changesIncreased gaps and architecture conflictsLack of commonality and consistency due to the absence of standardsDilution and dissipation of critical information and knowledge of the deployed solutionsRigidity, redundancy and lack of scalability and flexibility in the deployed solutionsLack of integration, compatibility and interoperability between applicationsComplex, fragile and costly interfaces between incongruent applicationsDecision-making gridlockPiece-meal and ad hoc software development driven by a tactical and reactive approach
36 The ArchiMate project 2½ years, July 2002 - December 2004 approx. 35 man-years, 4 million euroConsortium of companies and knowledge institutes, directed by the Telematica InstituutABN AMRO, Dutch Tax Administration, ABP Pension Fund, OrdinaUniversity of Nijmegen, University of Leiden, Center for Mathematics & Computer Science
37 Results in Practice Applications at numerous organisations various cases at e.g. ABN AMRO, ABP, Dutch Tax Administration, and approximately 25 other companiesImplementation by tool vendorsBiZZdesign Architect, Troux Metis (certified)IDS Scheer (ARIS), Adaptive (currently implementing)Casewise, ASG (considering implementation)EducationArchiMate basic trainingVarious universities and polytechnics use it
38 Goal: support for architects support for architects is insufficientOverview and dependenciesPowerPoint, Word and Excel are the most important tools…Communication over architectures with others is difficult“fuzzy pictures”-imageHidden knowledge in architecturesPowerPoint is not suitable for analysis
39 ArchiMate Goals To describe architectures and their relations Communicate architectures with all stakeholdersJudge the impact of changesRealize architecture by relating to existing standards, techniques and toolsbedoeld voor architectenmodelleren van architecturenICT en haar omgevingrequirementsontwerpprincipesintegratie van architecturenihb tussen business- en ICT-architecturenconsistentie van architecturenvisualisatie van architecturenpotentie van architecturen uitbuitenontwerp en planning van nieuwbouw en veranderingenpreventie en herstellen van systeemuitvalcommunicatie ICT en business faciliterenwhat-if analyses mogelijk maken
41 ArchiMate Forum Open cooperation between ArchiMate stakeholders Long term objective:An independent standard for describing Enterprise ArchitecturesRequired:Creating critical massContributing to international standardsSupporting organizations in applying ArchiMateTo this end, the Forum:actively brings in members to increase critical massfacilitates working groups for knowledge exchangesupports members in applying ArchiMate
43 Tool for Enterprise Architecture BiZZdesign ArchitectTool for Enterprise Architecture
44 BiZZdesign ArchitectTool to model, visualize, analyze and communicate enterprise architecturesBased on meta model of open standard ArchiMateBased on IEEE1471-definition: stakeholders, viewpoints and viewsCovers all EA-domains and relations: business goals and principles, business services, products, processes, business functions, business objects, application services, applications, application data, interfaces, infrastructure services, software, hardware,…Supports many architecture frameworks, like IAF, Zachman, DYA, Tapscott, Nolan-Norton, TOGAF
46 Main functionality Architect - 1 Modeling business and IT-architectureBased on ArchiMate®Extensible meta model, especially properties of objectsImport/export of already existing architecture overviews (harvesting)Tables to and from e.g. Word and ExcelProcess models to and from BiZZdesigner (process tool)Other imports and exports on the basis of XMI (in preparation)Generating views from a modelBased on viewpoint definitionsResulting in graphical scheme’s, lists, matrices, landscape mapsBoth total views as well as selections
47 Main functionality Architect - 2 Visualization of propertiesColor view, label view, tool tip viewImpact-of-change analysesGraphical or in tablesDocumenting, reporting, and publishing architecturesAdding documentation and hyperlinks to all objectsPublication to Word or HTML (intranet), readable with Office toolsTeam support via repositoryLocking (check in and checkout) en version managementRole based authorizationSeveral repository solutions allowing growth (shared file, Oracle or SQL Server, Adaptive)