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Transition Assessment for Students with Severe & Multiple Disabilities

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1 Transition Assessment for Students with Severe & Multiple Disabilities
Jim Martin University of Oklahoma Zarrow Center Web:

Agenda Introductions Part I Descriptions Recognizing abilities and expectations What is a Satisfying Life? Part II - Three-Part Transition Assessment Process Independent Living Assessments & the IEP Career Interests/Skills & the IEP Self-Determination Assessments & the IEP Part III - Pulling It All Together ASK QUESTIONS ALONG THE WAY!

3 Web Links Handout lists all the web sites used today Easy to read

4 Description of Students with Severe and Multiple Disabilities
Demonstrate diverse skills, strengths, limits, and support needs Multiple system impairments that impact the student, family, community participation, and severity of associated health conditions Two or more simultaneously occurring impairments Supports are usually pervasive and extensive in order to achieve community living, employment, and self-sufficiency. Who are we talking about today?

5 Description - continued
Severity Continuum Severity Supports Communication issues - frequently Self-care issues – almost always Intellectual issues – often, but not always “Multiple” systems - always Mild Moderate Severe Profound

6 Description - continued
Everyone you meet today has a diagnosis of severe and multiple developmental disabilities (and some have profound impairments); Some can more readily communicate their thoughts, desires, needs; and They give voice to those that cannot speak for themselves or are not with us today.

7 Recognizing Ability Sherri Tolby – 18 years old
Unrecognized potential and ability in public school can result in wasted time, and delayed or NO access to postsecondary dreams and goals… Meet Sherri and Tolby. See their impairments and needs; LOOK for their abilities. Sherri post-high school and Tolby is still in high school. Different outcomes??? Sherri Tolby – 18 years old

8 Abilities and Expectations
What did you see in Tolby? What did you see in Sherri? Expectations for Tolby? Expectations for Sherri? Expectations for YOUR student…today

9 The Purpose of SPED 2004 IDEA Changed Secondary SPED
. . . a free appropriate public education that emphasizes special education and related services designed to meet students’ unique needs and to prepare them for further education, employment, and independent living. Lauren, did your special education program prepare you for college, employment, or independent living? Keep it short. 2004 IDEA Changed Secondary SPED

10 IDEA 2004 Post-Secondary Goals
IEPs must include appropriate measurable postsecondary goals based upon age-appropriate transition assessments related to training, education, employment, and when appropriate, independent living

11 Student Transition Questions
Postschool Goal Questions Where do I want to live Where do I want to work? Where do I want to learn? Annual Transition Goal Question What do I need to learn now to live where I want? What do I need to learn now to do the career I want? What do I need to learn now to be able to learn where I want? Greene, G., & Kochhar-Bryant, C. A. (2003). Pathways to successful transition for youth with disabilities. New Jersey: Merrill Prentice Hall.

12 Transition Assessment Results help Answer Students’ Questions
Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional Educational Performance Current assessment data Transition strengths and needs Address with transition goals Transition Assessment Results Name of assessment, date given, and results Used to develop postsecondary goals and transition goals

13 What is a satisfying life for you?
What is a satisfying life for people with disabilities? Have the audience talk about what makes a satisfying life for them. Then have Lauren speak.

14 A Satisfying Life is… Home, career, social life, community lifestyle, spiritual well being (Romer, Frantangelo, & Fanjoy, 2009) Personal Fulfillment? Right mix of opportunities and support to nourish the presence and contribution of a human being (Kendrick, 2009) Outcome of high quality supports A life that is uniquely ones own! (Simpson, 2009) Research says…..Satisfaction in work Determined by a balance of barriers and resources (van Camen & Cardol, 2009).

15 Satisfying Participation in Life includes…
realizing societal roles, with or without support, in a meaningful and satisfying way Work participation and being satisfied with life is broader than just job satisfaction… (Van Campen & Cardol, 2007) Four years after high school, youth with multiple disabilities were least engaged in their communities (NLTS-2)

16 Tolby’s satisfying life…
Healthy Be with his family Communicate what’s going on in his head with others Consistent care Operable equipment

17 What’s a satisfying life for Sherri?
Sherri’s satisfying life Josh’s satisfying life

18 Lauren’s Satisfying Life…

19 Guiding Questions for Secondary Transition Planning for Youth with Significant Disabilities
Can the young adult express interests? If no, get information from parents and caregivers to develop transition plan. What are special health care needs? What are needs/challenges preventing the young adult from working outside the home? Lauren: Are these valid questions?

20 Guiding Questions for Secondary Transition Planning for Youth with Significant Disabilities
Who can provide education/training to assist the young adult? What can the young adult accomplish without assistance? What else could the young adult accomplish if assistance were provided by a job coach, habilitation training specialist (HTS), or other caregiver? Were these questions asked when you were planning for life after high school? Do they make sense?

21 \Sample Scenarios and Postsecondary Goals
Tolby Tolby has DD, CP, multiple disabilities, no fine motor skills, dependent on others for mobility in and out of his manual wheelchair; requires full-time assistance for all daily personal needs. He is non-verbal; it is difficult understanding what he needs, wants and knows. Tolby enjoys interacting with children, especially his cousins. Tolby’s mom wants him to be able to communicate things to her…what’s going on in his head, safety, etc. She wants him to remain healthy, and she wants to care for him, with help. Lauren: Again, Tolby is a lot like Nate….if you want to make a brief comment here that’s ok.

22 Tolby’s Postsecondary Goals
Tolby will live at home with his mother, and with the support of a job coach, will volunteer at a local childcare facility where play music during dance and nap times.

23 Sample Scenarios and Postsecondary Goals
Clarification Tolby’s Case Although Tolby may not earn an hourly wage for his job work experience at a childcare facility, he is still accomplishing something he set out to do in terms of employment. Although Tolby requires assistance and support with everything, staying healthy and helping at home with his cousins and nieces/nephews contributes to achieving his adult living goal, and it engages his employment goal.

24 NSTTAC can help! National Secondary Transition Technical Assistance Center (NSTTAC) has good and not so good examples of postsecondary goals. Go to:

25 OK’s Sample Scenarios and Postsecondary Goals
Scenario 2 - John John D. is a 21-year-old who has a severe intellectual disability, is blind, and exhibits self-stimulatory behavior. John loves balloons and the squeaking sounds they make when they are inflated and touched, or rubbed. Due to John’s significant health care needs, he lives with his parents and has a part-time assistant who comes to his home to help with daily personal needs. John likes traveling in a vehicle. He wants to earn his own money so he does not have to rely so heavily on his parents. John’s expressive verbal skills are low, so it is difficult to get information from John. Discussions with his parents revealed John’s love of balloons, car travel, and desire to earn money. \

26 OK’s Sample Scenarios and Postsecondary Goals
Scenario 2 – John’s Real Postsecondary Goals Education/Training: John will participate in on-the-job training at flower shops or Party Galaxy to learn how to properly inflate balloons. Employment: With the help of a job coach, John will develop and operate a home-based balloon business. Independent/Adult Living: While living at home with his parents, John will maintain a checkbook and pay for his purchases with the assistance of his parent(s) or assistant. Screen Shot for IEP

27 Three-Part Transition Assessment Model

28 Transition Assessment Model Components
Independent Living Assessment Vocational Interest and Skills Assessment Self-Determination Assessment Use information gathered from multiple sources and settings!

29 Independent Living Assessments
Part 1 of the 3-Part Transition Assessment Model This is the area that oftentimes impacts so many other postsecondary pursuits for students with severe and multiple disabilities.

30 Our Belief The law states that an independent living goal be addressed “when appropriate.” We believe that to determine if an independent living goal needs to be written, an adaptive behavior assessment needs to be given. This provides evidence of needing an independent living goal or not. How else would a team determine if an independent living goal is needed? Lauren, give a brief comment about the importance of addressing an INDEPENDENT LIVING GOAL for you while in high school. Did you?

31 Independent Living Assessments – We‘ll Focus on Four
Personal Preference Indicators (PPI) Postsecondary applications of PPI Enderle-Severson Transition Rating Form Great tool for students with significant support needs Life Skills Inventory Informal and free Casey Life Skills

32 Personal Preference Indicators
Interview format Family members, friends, professionals who know student well Designed for students with significant support needs Likes, dislikes, social indicators, choices Health, body clock, future Cost: free Use the results in PLEP

33 Enderle-Severson Transition Rating Form
ESTR-J Students with mild disabilities Parent (available in Spanish) and Teacher version Five Transition areas ESTR-III Students with “more” disabilities Parent and Teacher version ESTR-S Students with severe/multiple impairments Parent and Teacher (on-line only) versions Employment, Rec/leisure, home living, community participation, and adult life (each costs $2.00)

34 ESTR-S Automatic Scoring
Sample Report From Estr-S

35 Life Skills Inventory 15 domains (money, hygiene, safety, etc)
Four levels: basic, intermediate, advanced, exceptional Must know 3 of 5 to advance from basic to intermediate Must know the person or have family member complete Cost: free Available at:

36 Casey Life Skills Web based
Spanish, French or English, with numerous supplemental assessments Youth and caregiver formats Automatically scored and sent to you Provides different levels of questions for students across functioning levels Level 1 basic skills Level 4 complex skills Caution: It over-estimates skills for students with the most disabilities Cost: free Available at:


38 Tolby’s Assessment Results

39 Career Interest and Skill Assessment
Part 2 of the 3-Part Transition Assessment Process


41 Belief Work benefits individuals emotionally and socially
Enables individuals to contribute to society and to their own well being Can be done without fear of losing social security or other benefits Adds meaning to life

42 Employment Options Individual Competitive Employment
Individual Supported Employment Group Supported Employment At Home or Community-Based Entrepreneurial Jobs

43 Functional Vocational Assessment
Most Effective Method for Many Students with Severe and Multiple Disabilities

44 What does the law say? When to consider what’s appropriate?
. . . and when appropriate functional vocational evaluation. When to consider what’s appropriate? When paper-pencil or computer-based interest inventories simply do not work What is it? Tools that student’s use to make a job match.

45 Functional Assessment Process
Over time Repeated Measures Situational Assessment Apply what you already know – Information from other Assessments…Personal Preference Indicators and postsecondary Applications.

46 Discrepancy Problems Logical choice making occurs when chosen preferences match available jobs. Discrepancy problems occur when Chosen job, task, and characteristics do not match specific jobs Discrepancy problems diminish when job site characteristics match preferences Task is to provide ample opportunities for students to determine matches and non-matches.

47 Personal Preference Indicators
Use Supplemental Preference Form Interview format Family members, friends, professionals who know student well Likes, dislikes, social indicators, choices Health, body clock, future Cost: free Use the results in PLEP

48 Vocational Assessment Software
Choose and Take Action Vocational Assessment Software Use of a software program and community experiences to identify entry-level job interests

49 Target Population Secondary students and adults with moderate to significant cognitive needs who: Have difficulty getting information from print Can attend to a computer screen Can follow simple 1 or 2 step directions Have limited to no previous work experience

50 CTA Constructs • Vocational Choice Making • Planning
Characteristics Setting Activities (jobs) • Planning • Community Experience Watch Do • Self-Evaluation • Choose Again with Adjustment

51 CTA Choice Factors 14 entry-level vocational settings found in most communities 15 job activities repeated across two settings Care for animals in a vet’s office Care for animals in a retail store 12 characteristics repeated across two or three activities Working in a factory where it is inside and noisy

52 CTA Features A navigator to give instructions and guide user through the program Restricted mouse movements Highlight critical features as navigator says them Record made of all choices Input options may include user installed touch screen

53 Format designed so teachers can add comments on student performance
Teacher can set number of video clips student can see in one trial Pair of video clips presented together Minimum teacher control over available video choices

54 Settings Activities Characteristics Car repair shop Bag items/bring carts Big open space Child care center Care for animals Small space Construction site Care for people Clean Factory Care for plants Messy Greenhouse Clean-up Few people Grocery store Clear tables Many people Hospital Filing Inside Hotel Handle materials Outside Janitorial service Heavy cleaning Noisy Landscape Company Laundry Quiet Office Move things Wear own clothes Restaurant Do paperwork Wear a uniform Store Stock shelves Vet Office Wash dishes Yard work





59 Publisher Choose and Take Action: Finding a Job for You Sopris West
4093 Specialty Place Longmont, CO 80504

60 Job Characteristics I Like
Teach Job Characteristics Introduces Match Concept between What I like What’s at their job Computes % of Matches

61 Key: Determine Match Between What I Like and What’s At Their Site

62 Each time student chooses a characteristic one more cell on the graph is marked

63 Characteristics I Like vs Here
Compares initial preferences to those experienced at a particular job site.

64 Job Duties I Like Identifies job duties
Based upon current job or work experience Assess preferences for job duties Calculate % of Job Duties I Like

65 What Do I Like?


67 Job Duties - How I Did Job duties identified and written onto form
Student evaluates speed, independent performance, and accuracy Supervisor evaluates speed, independent performance, and accuracy Match made between student and supervisor

68 Uses self-evaluation methodology to teach job performance skills and to assess job duty skills

69 Work, Social, & Personal Skills
Student rates performance Supervisor or teacher rate performance Calculates what supervisor thinks Calculates match between worker and supervisor

70 Personal Improvement Contract

71 Self-Determination Contracts to solve on-the job problems

72 My Employment Plan

73 Build Forms Few vocational illustrations exists
Cut and paste the SDSE illustrations to make forms Go to: Use these with Pages or In-Design page layout program to build own forms electronically

74 Choosing Goals Quick means for students to develop goals

75 Zeke’s Example

76 Illustrations Take From
Self-Directed Employment Paul Brookes Publishing Baltimore Download free illustrations Can use words or illustrations Can do the same with digital pictures from your own camera

77 Vocational Interests via Career Exploration - For Those Who Can Read
Choosing Employment Goals Sopris West Publishers ( Requires reading and writing skills

78 Career Awareness & Exploration via Video
Video by Job Clusters Video Provides numerous videos for students to watch English or Spanish Job cluster and skill categories Horse Training Coast Guard Assistant Construction Workers

79 Reading Free Interest Inventory
Published by Pro Ed Price: $110




83 COPS-PIC Non-Verbal Assessment of Occupational Interest
EDITS / P.O. Box 7234 / San Diego, CA 92167 / / Fax 25 copies for $50.90

84 Self-Determination & Self-Advocacy Assessments
Part 3 of the 3-Part Transition Assessment Model

85 Self-Determination Constructs
• Self-awareness • Self-advocacy • Self-efficacy • Decision-making • Use of self-management strategies to attain plan • Self-evaluation • Adjustment

86 Why SD Assessment? Improved postsecondary outcomes
Goal setting during early adolescence Awareness of disability Goal attainment Improved academic performance Limited studies so far

87 Guide to Assessing College Readiness
Landmark College “Parent” Assessment Read each item with student and discuss Provides Assessment for Self-Advocacy to include in annual transition goals Five Domains Academic Skills Self-Understanding Self-Advocacy Executive Functioning Motivation and Confidence

88 AIR Self-Determination Assessment
Parent Version Teacher Version Student Version Available at Cost: free


90 Example Present Level of Achievement Using the AIR Self Determination Assessment
Strengths Knows own ability and limitation and can express these Set goals Change plan to accomplish goals Anticipated Effects When provided the opportunity to set and express goals at his next IEP meeting, Bill can engage in this activity. Needs Opportunities at school and home to learn and practice additional SD skills Current Assessment Data Bill obtained a 48% on the AIR Educator Self-Determination Assessment given on Objective Statement Bill has about half of the overall SD skills and opportunities needed to master these skills. He needs increased school and home opportunities to develop and master additional SD skills for success in welding school.

91 Annual Transition Goal: Education/Training
Bill will increase his overall self-determination score from 48% to 75% as measured on the AIR self-determination assessment. Objective/Benchmark To demonstrate leadership at IEP meetings, Bill will increase his scores on the Expressing Goals section of the ChoiceMaker Self-Determination Assessment from 20% to 90%. Bill will develop and implement a weekly goal attainment plan to attain two or more IEP goals by successfully completing 90% or more of the Take Action Goal Attainment process.

92 Annual Education/Training Coordinated Activities
Bill will share his weekly goal attainment plan with his family. Bill will build his SOP with his family to share at the IEP meeting. Responsible Parties Bill and special education teacher Bill and parents

93 Self-Advocacy Checklists
Self-Advocacy crucial self-determination concept Students speak and act on their own behalf Several Self-Advocacy Checklist exits Self-Determination and Self-Advocacy Skills Questionnaire Student form Parent form Teacher forms (A & B)

94 ARC Self-Determination Assessment
Student version Must use the manual to score Cost: free Available at

95 Collaborative Effort Creative Thinking Produces Job Matches Lauren:
Here’s where you have the group do the pipe cleaner activity again…have them create something that tells us how they think of that student they addressed at the beginning…what’s their future like now?? They will also likely ask you lots of questions…and maybe some of the rest of us too! Creative Thinking Produces Job Matches


97 For More Information Contact
Jim Martin, Ph.D. University of Oklahoma Zarrow Center for Learning Enrichment 338 Cate Center Drive, Room 190 Norman, OK 73019 Phone: Web:

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